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In botany, a neophyte is a plant species which is non-native to a geographical region, and was introduced in recent history. The term is derived from the Greek neo = new and phytos = plant. Archaeophytes are plants that are long-established in an area and are considered to have been first introduced prior to 1492, when Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas and the Columbian Exchange 1 began.

List of invasive alien vascular plants relevant to Luxembourg

Originally compiled for assessments after the ISEIA protocol, this list mentions invasive neophytes present in Luxembourg and/or occurring and creating problems in at least one of the three adjacent EU member states. It is updated when new species appear. This list will provide a basis for the establishment of a national list of invasive alien species of Luxembourg concern pursuant to Article 12(1) of the EU Regulation 1143/2014 on Invasive Alien Species.

Table header abbreviations: IS = Risk assessment after ISEIA2 | H+ = Risk assessment after Harmonia+3 | 1RL = 1st record in LU4 | LU-L = listed in Luxembourg | EU-L = listed on the list of EU concern5

Species Family IS H+ 1RL LU-L EU-L
Acer negundo L. Aceraceae C1 0.23 <1825    
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle Simaroubaceae C1 0.42 <1875   2019
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Asteraceae C1 0.54 1949    
Amelanchier lamarckii F.G. Schroed. Malaceae C1 0.07 1961    
Amorpha fruticosa L. Fabaceae     1934    
Asclepias syriaca L. Apocynaceae B0 0.19 <1836 Alert 2017
Aster lanceolatus Willd. Asteraceae C1 0.15 1934    
Aster novi-belgii L. Asteraceae C1 0.08 <1872    
Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. Amaranthaceae C2 0.09 2007    
Azolla filiculoides Lam. Azollaceae C1 0.22 ~2002    
Bidens frondosa L. Asteraceae C2 0.18 1959    
Buddleja davidii Franch. Buddlejaceae C2 0.41 1961    
Bunias orientalis L. Brassicaceae C1 0.30 1874    
Claytonia perfoliata Donn ex Willd. Portulacaceae C1 0.04 <1988    
Cochlearia danica L. Brassicaceae C1 0.02 2011    
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist Asteraceae C3 0.24 1822    
Cornus sericea L. Cornaceae B1 0.30 1823 Watch  
Cotoneaster horizontalis Decne. Malaceae C1 0.34 1949    
Crassula helmsii (Kirk) Cockayne Crassulaceae B1 0.44 2020 Watch  
Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Th.Wolf Rosaceae C1 0.05 <2007    
Egeria densa Planch. Hydrocharitaceae A1 0.32 2016 Black  
Elodea canadensis Michx. Hydrocharitaceae A3 0.46 ~1875 Black  
Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John Hydrocharitaceae A3 0.42 1975 Black 2017
Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl Onagraceae     2021    
Epilobium ciliatum Raf. Onagraceae B3 0.22 1950 Watch  
Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Asteraceae C1 0.13 <1836    
Fallopia ×bohemica (Chrtek & Chrtková) J. P. Bailey Polygonaceae B1 0.70 2005 Watch  
Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. Polygonaceae A3 0.75 1849 Black  
Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt Petrop.) Ronse Decr. Polygonaceae B1 0.70 1959 Watch  
Helianthus tuberosus L. Asteraceae B2 0.53 ~1720 Watch  
Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev. Apiaceae A3 0.83 ~1934 Black 2017
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. Apiaceae A0 0.58 n/a Alert 2016
Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. Balsaminaceae B1 0.30 <1995 Watch  
Impatiens capensis Meerb. Balsaminaceae     2021    
Impatiens glandulifera Royle Balsaminaceae A3 0.60 <1897 Black 2017
Impatiens parviflora DC. Balsaminaceae C3 0.20 1956    
Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn)T.M) Schust.&Reveal Polygonaceae         2022
Lagarosiphon major Ridl. Moss ex Wager Hydrocharitaceae A0 0.65 n/a Alert 2016
Lemna minuta Humb., Bonpl. et Kunth Lemnaceae B1 0.35 2002 Watch  
Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet Onagraceae A0 0.62 n/a Alert 2016
Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven Onagraceae A0 0.44 n/a Alert 2016
Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. Fabaceae C1 0.26 <1901    
Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John Araceae B1 0.14 n/a Watch 2016
Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. Berberidaceae B1 0.35 1842 Watch  
Mimulus guttatus DC. Scrophulariaceae C1 0.16 1998    
Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. Haloragaceae B1 0.51 ~1990 Watch 2016
Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. Haloragaceae B0 0.47 n/a Alert 2017
Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch Vitaceae B1 0.34 <1872 Watch  
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. Vitaceae B1 0.34 ? Watch  
Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. Paulowniaceae     1842    
Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. Poaceae C1   2019   2017
Phytolacca americana L. Phytolaccaceae B1   <1946 Watch  
Pinus nigra Arnold Pinaceae A2 0.25 1823 Black  
Pistia stratiotes L. Araceae         2022
Plantago coronopus L. Plantaginaceae     2014    
Populus ×canadensis Moench Salicaceae C3 0.24 1823    
Prunus laurocerasus L. Rosaceae B3 0.45 <1875 Watch  
Prunus serotina Ehrh. Rosaceae B1 0.32 <1910 Watch  
Quercus rubra L. Fagaceae C1 0.29 <1873    
Rhus typhina L. Anacardiaceae B1 0.28 <1875 Watch  
Robinia pseudoacacia L. Fabaceae A3 0.53 1787 Black  
Rosa rugosa Thunb. Rosaceae C1 0.18 <1923    
Rudbeckia laciniata L. Asteraceae C1 0.17 1887    
Senecio inaequidens DC. Asteraceae B2 0.29 1988 Watch  
Solidago canadensis L. Asteraceae A2 0.39 <1872 Black  
Solidago gigantea Ait. Asteraceae A2 0.26 1882 Black  
Spergularia marina (L.) BESSER Caryophyllaceae C1   2019    
Spiraea alba Du Roi Rosaceae C1 0.16 1882    
Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq Rosaceae B1 0.00 <1875 Watch  
Spiraea douglasii Hook. Rosaceae B0 0.10 1847 Alert  
Syringa vulgaris L. Oleaceae C1 0.34 <1836    
Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl. Adoxaceae     1936    

 Page content last updated on 2023-09-27.

  1. Cf.[]
  2. More info about the Invasive Species Environmental Impact Assessment (ISEIA) in the Risk assessments & IAS lists section on the Info-page.[]
  3. Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB][]
  4. Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB][]
  5. Year in which the species was published in the list of EU concern.[]