Bunias orientalis L.

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English Warty-cabbage Status LU: established. 1st record: LU & ITW 1874.
Lëtzebuergesch Orientalesch Zackescheekchen Status Eur.: established. 1st record: UK 1731.
Français Bunias d’Orient RA: ISEIA: C1. Harmonia+: 0,30
Deutsch Orientalisches Zackenschötchen Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Warty-cabbage Wikipedia - Français - Bunias d'Orient Wikipedia - Deutsch - Orientalisches Zackenschötchen | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Bunias orientalis | CABI
Nederlands Grote hardvrucht Back to the list of neophytes

Report the species

Report Bunias orientalis to the National Museum of Natural History.

Brief description

Bunias orientalis L. is a fast growing perennial plant needing a lot of light. On nutrient-rich and disturbed soils, the species can build up dense populations quicker than potential competitors. Disturbances favour the species, which can also survive in closed vegetation stands unless it is shaded. The plant occurs mainly in ruderal habitats and on road embankments.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Bunias orientalis L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2024-06-25.

Bunias orientalis L. was first documented in 1874 in Luxembourg. It was first found during a botanical stroll by Dr. Édouard Aschman in June 1874 in an alfalfa field on the upper part of Clausen towards Fetschenhof (Fischer 1886: 58; Koltz 1877: 8).

If we consider the previous record as being found in cultivated conditions, the species was first recorded in the wild by Jean Feltgen (1833-1904) in 1885 on a railway dam in Lorentzweiler (Obs. key: DSS00439000014NR, MNHNL 2000-).

Another early finding was on 1949-05-25 in the Municipality of Mersch (Beck et al. 1950).

Since then more than 50 occurrences have been reported, mainly in the south and the central parts of Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2021, MNHNL 2000-). The species seems to expand in the south of Luxembourg into dry grassland habitats with new records at Haut des Saulnes (Rodange), at Roudebierg (Dudelange) and Giele Botter (Niedercorn / Pétange) (Email by Jan Herr, 2019-06-12).

The melliferous species is quite common to quite rare (AC-AR) in the Lorraine environment (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 256).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C1 (1+2+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,30 = (Overall Invasion score 0,67 x Overall Impact score 0,44) (Ries et al. 2020).


Worldwide distribution


  • Beck, E., Jungblut, F., Lefort, F.L., Reichling, L., Stumper, R., 1950. Herborisations faites dans le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg en 1949 (av. 2 fig. et 7 planches). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 54: 161-208. [PDF 1745 KB]
  • CABI, 2009. Bunias orientalis [original text by Agnese Priede]. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-02-28]
  • Fischer, M.-E., 1886. Plantes Phanérogames Nouvelle ou Rares de la Flore luxembourgeoise. Recueil des mémoires et des travaux publiés par la Société de botanique du grand-duché de Luxembourg 11: 50-68. [PDF 12 MB]
  • Koltz, J.-P.-J., 1877. Compte-rendu des travaux de la Société botanique pour l’exercice 1874, présenté à l’assemblée générale du 27 février 1875. Recueil des mémoires et des travaux publiés par la Société de Botanique du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg 2-3 : 7-9.
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Bunias orientalis L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-05]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Bunias orientalis L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-06]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2021-04-14. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-14.