Epilobium ciliatum Raf.

English American willowherb ISEIA: B3 – Watch List
Lëtzebuergesch Drüse-Weideréischen EASIN
Français Épilobe à tige glanduleuse Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American willowherb Wikipedia - Deutsch - Drüsiges Weidenröschen Wikipedia - Nederlands - Beklierde basterdwederik
Deutsch Drüsiges Weidenröschen Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Epilobium ciliatum
Nederlands Beklierde basterdwederik Back to the list of neophytes

Report the species

Report Epilobium ciliatum to the National Museum of Natural History.

Brief description

Epilobium ciliatum Raf. is a pioneer plant species that thrives mainly in man-made environments such as arable lands, gardens, tree nurseries, clearcuts and ruderal areas. It may also become established in open riparian habitats. Its seeds are adapted to wind dispersion and have a high germination rate. It is one of the arable weed species with the highest rate of increase in Europe (Branquart et al. 2010).

Importance and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Epilobium ciliatum Raf. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux & iNaturalist, 2019-10-19.

Epilobium ciliatum Raf. was first documented under its synonym Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn. on 19th July 1950 in wasteland on sand between two spruce stands near Croix-des-Bourgeois (Biergerkräiz) near Bridel (municipality of Kopstal) by François Léon Lefort (1917-1975) and Léopold Reichling (1921-2009) (Reichling 1961: 68ff.; MNHNL 2000-).

The species described by Haussknecht in 1879 based on American herbarium samples is native to North America where it is widely distributed in several varieties that are difficult to define. Introduction in Europe: < 1900 (Great Britain, Russia), 1900 (Sweden), 1915 (Netherlands), 1916 (Finland), 1931 (East Prussia), 1950 (Luxembourg), 1952 (Belgium, France) (Reichling 1961: 74).

This North-American plant species has naturalized in Europe around 1900; it is rapidly expanding (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 434).

700 records of the species are listed in the MNHNL-mdata online portal and the plant is widespread throughout the country (MNHNL & iNaturalist 2019).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: B3 (3+3+2+1) = Watch List (Ries et al. 2013: 18).


  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum, F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Epilobium ciliatum Raf.. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-09]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Epilobium ciliatum Raf. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-09]
  • MNHNL & iNaturalist, 2019. Epilobium ciliatum Raf. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux and iNaturalist. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-09]
  • Reichling, L., 1961. Notes floristiques 1957-1958. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 63: 19-99. [PDF 4612 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

Suggested citation of this webpage

Ries, C. & M. Pfeiffenschneider (Eds.), 2019. Epilobium ciliatum Raf. In: neobiota.lu - Invasive Alien Species in Luxembourg. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://neobiota.lu/epilobium-ciliatum/ [Accessed 2019-10-19].

 Last updated on Wednesday, October 9, 2019.