DNADIVE – New research project on invasive crayfish

See the project web page at https://faune-flore.lu/dnadive/

DNADIVE aims to develop a molecular toolbox enabling eDNA detection for Invasive crayfish in streams of Luxembourg. This Public2 Partnership project was accepted by FNR in November 2017 and will start on 1st January 2018. The project will be hosted by Fondation faune-flore and its principal investigator will be the French researcher Dr David Porco. Project partnership: Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History (MNHNL), Luxembourg Institute of Science & Technology (LIST), Water management Agency (AGE), Ministry for Sustainable Development and Infrastructure (MDDI), University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany).

Abstract

DNADIVE aims to develop a toolbox for the molecular monitoring of invasive crayfish in the streams of Luxembourg. Three exotic species (Orconectes limosus, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Astacus leptodactylus) and a native one (Astacus astacus) will be targeted for the project.

This molecular toolbox will encompass several techniques of detection comprising (1) a simple amplification method easily performed in a laboratory with few elements, (2) a digital droplet amplification (ddPCR) which is a more elaborated lab method that can allow for a higher detection sensitivity and a possible quantification of DNA that could be related through the proxy of biomass and abundance to the size of the populations detected and (3) an isotherm amplification method (iPCR) i.e. a simple, cost effective approach which will allow for field detection usable by untrained individuals.

The results will enable the development of a predictive species distribution model for the target species and to infer their impact on freshwater communities through the comparison with previous sampling campaigns. This set of methods has the high potential to efficiently contribute to early detection and routine monitoring of the invasive crayfish species in Luxembourg, thus allowing for timely and efficient decision-making and appropriate management.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Luxembourg reports Nutria to the EU within the EASIN notification system

On 19th September 2017, a forester captured a Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in Osweiler (commune of Rosport, eastern Luxembourg) and put it to sleep.

The Luxembourg authorities were notified of this detection of an IAS of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) on 26 September 2017 and an Eradication Measure Set was also submitted on 26 September 2017, pursuant to Article 16(2) of R. 1143/2014 (Anonymous 2014).

Biberratte - Nutria - coypu - Myocastor coypus - ragondin - castor des marais - Mönchbruch - December 25th 2012 - 03

Coypu (Myocastor coypus), Moenchbruch lake, Hesse, Germany.
By Norbert Nagel (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

The species was first documented in Luxembourg in 1957 at the Alzette river next to Hunsdorf (Municipality of Lorentzweiler). Currently, it is only observed sporadically in Luxembourg. Because of its occurrence in the bordering regions of France (Chiers, Moselle) and Germany (Saar), it is likely that the species will populate national watercourses within the near future (Becker-Krüll & Schaefer 2013).

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2014. Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species. Official Journal of the European Union 4.11.2014 L 317: 35-55.
  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • Becker-Krüll, L. & P. Schaefer, 2013. Jagdbare Wildtierarten Luxemburgs. Administration de la nature et des forêts, Luxembourg, 96 pp.

 Page content last updated on 2021-04-14. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

2016 Mosquito survey catches identified

In 2016, the Luxembourg National Natural History Museum started a survey on mosquito species in Luxembourg. Between July and October mosquitoes have been trapped on a weekly basis at 10 sites throughout the country, in co-operation with local and regional partner organizations and private individuals.

On June 14th and 15th 2017, Mosquito specialist Dr Francis Schaffner from the University of Zurich identified the 2016 catches at the Museum.

F.l.t.r.: Svenja Christian (Department of Invertebrates Zoology MNHNL) and Dr Francis Schaffner (University of Zurich) in the Lab of the Department of Ecology. Photo: Dr Christian Ries, MNHNL, 15 June 2017.

Results

182 mosquitoes were caught during 90 catches from 10 sites.

Culex pipiens / torrentium (9 out of 10 sites)
175
Anopheles plumbeus (Kockelscheuer, Steinsel)
3
Culiseta annulata (Remerschen)
1
Coquillettidia richiardii (Remerschen)
1
Aedes vexans (Kockelscheuer)
1
Aedes cinereus (Kockelscheuer) 1

Locality, Partners (#Catches|#Specimen)

We thank the following partners who have run the traps on their sites.

  • Diekirch, Administration de la nature et des forêts (11|0)
  • Esch-sur-Sûre, Naturpark Öewersauer (PNHS) (12|9)
  • Kalborn-Moulin, natur&ëmwelt – Fondation Hëllef fir d’Natur (10|6)
  • Kockelscheier, natur&ëmwelt – Haus vun der Natur (11|48)
  • Leudelange, private owner (10|27)
  • Lintgen, private owner (9|23)
  • Luxembourg / Grund, MNHNL (11|19)
  • Remerschen, Biodiversum (5|16)
  • Schrassig, private owner (6|24)
  • Steinsel, private owner (5|10)

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy, 1851)

English Magnificent bryozoan Status LU: established. 1st record: ~2011.
Lëtzebuergesch Schwamp-Moosdéierchen Status Eur.: established.
Français Pectinatelle RA: ISEIA: C1. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Schwammartiges Moostierchen Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Greater duckweed Wikipedia - Français - Lentille d'eau géante Wikipedia - Deutsch - Vielwurzelige Teichlinse Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Pectinatella magnifica
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Pectinatella magnifica 02Pectinatella magnifica, the magnificent bryozoan, is a member of the Bryozoa phylum, in the order Plumatellida. It is a colony of organisms that bind together; these colonies can sometimes be 60 centimeters in diameter. These organisms can be found mostly in North America with some in Europe. They are often found attached to objects, but can be found free floating as well. They form a translucent body with many star-like blooms along the outside. The density of the organism is similar to that of gelatin, and is easily breakable into smaller chunks (Wikipedia contributors 2018).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy, 1851) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-01-21.

In 2012 numerous colonies of Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy, 1851) (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata) were discovered in the reservoir of Esch-sur-Sûre (Luxembourg) fed by the river Sûre. The colonies were particularly abundant in the shallow, warm and nutrient-rich water near the riverbank, but some colonies were spotted by divers in the reservoir at a depth of 8-9 m in one site and more than 20 m in another site. There is reliable evidence that Pectinatella was present, but less conspicuous and as such not identified, in 2011 and possibly already in 2010. P. magnifica was hitherto unrecorded in Luxembourg, but known from a site near the German-Luxembourg border near Nennig (Germany, Saarland) where statoblasts were found in 2001 (Massard et al. 2013).

Three records of the species are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C1 (3+2+1+1) (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • GBIF, 2019. Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy, 1851) in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-03-13]
  • Massard, J.A., G. Geimer & E. Wille, 2013. Apparition de Pectinella magnifica (Leidy, 1851) (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata) dans le lac de barrage d’Esch-sur-Sûre (Luxembourg). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 114: 131-148.
  • Massard, J.A. & G. Geimer, 2015. L’’histoire de la recherche bryozoologique au Luxembourg (Phylactolémates et Gymnolémates d’eau douce). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 116: 373-379. [PDF 1,35 MB]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021. MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2021-04-14]
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2018. ‘Pectinatella magnifica’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 3 December 2018, 23:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pectinatella_magnifica&oldid=871869936> [accessed 2020-03-13]

 Page content last updated on 2021-04-14. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, 2000

English Varroa mite Status LU: established. 1st record: 1985.
Lëtzebuergesch Varroamilb Status Eur.: established.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: A3, Black List. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Varroamilbe Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Varroa mite Wikipedia - Français - Varroa destructor Wikipedia - Deutsch - Varroamilbe Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Varroa destructor | CABI
Nederlands Varroamijt Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

7-Varroa destructor on head bee pupa3 by Gilles San MartinVarroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, 2000 is an external parasitic mite that attack and feeds on the honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. The disease caused by the mites is called varroosis. The Varroa mite can only reproduce in a honey bee colony. It attaches to the body of the bee and weakens the bee by sucking fat bodies. The species is a vector for at least five debilitating bee viruses, including RNA viruses such as the deformed wing virus (DWV). A significant mite infestation leads to the death of a honey bee colony, usually in the late autumn through early spring. The Varroa mite is the parasite with possibly the most pronounced economic impact on the beekeeping industry. Varroa is considered to be one of multiple stress factors contributing to the higher levels of bee losses around the world.

The adult female mite is reddish-brown in color, while the male is white. Varroa mites are flat, having a button shape. They are 1–1.8 mm long and 1.5–2 mm wide, and have eight legs. Mites reproduce on a 10-day cycle (Wikipedia contributors 2020).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, 2000 was observed for the first time in Luxembourg in 1985 (Meisch 1986). Claude Meisch recalls: “At that time it was a delicate matter, no beekeeper wanted to admit that he had the parasite in his hives. I remember well that I was the first to admit in meetings that I had found Varroa in my hives. Probably Varroa was already widespread in the whole country at that time” (Meisch 2018).

In the 1980s, Varroa spread throughout the country and is nowadays present in every beehive.

There is no distribution map available because no data has been entered into the Recorder-Lux database so far (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A3 (3+3+3+3) = Black List (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

CABI 2008: https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/107784#toDistributionMaps

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2008. Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, 2000 [original text by Claire Beverley]. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2019-11-26]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-24]
  • Meisch, C., 1986. Die Varroamilbe. Geschichte der Ausbreitung, Portrait und Biologie. Pp. 174-177 in: Livre d’or du centenaire 1886-1986. Fédération des unions d’apiculteurs du grand-duché de Luxembourg.
  • Meisch, C., 2018. Personal communication to Lucie Lentz during Summer 2018.
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. ‘Varroa destructor’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 19 February 2020, 15:24 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Varroa_destructor&oldid=941598994> [accessed 2020-03-13]

 Page content last updated on 2021-05-14. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-12.

Opilio canestrinii (Thorell, 1876)

English n/a Status LU: established. 1st record: 2009.
Lëtzebuergesch Roude Schneider Status Eur.: established.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: B3, Watch List. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Apenninen-Kanker Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Opilio canestrinii Wikipedia - Français - Opilio canestrinii Nederlands | Wikispecies: n/a (2020) | CABI
Nederlands Rode hooiwagen Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Opilio canestrinii LC0163Opilio canestrinii is a species of harvestman. Males reach a body length up to 6 mm, females up to 8 mm. While males are yellowish brown to reddish, females are lighter. Males have dark legs, but yellow coxae and “knees”; the legs of females show alternately light and dark rings. The backs of females sport a dark, saddle-like pattern with a light longitudinal stripe in the middle. Adults can be found from June to December.

O. canestrinii probably originates from Italy, but has invaded Central Europe since the late 1970, and has since almost everywhere replaced the similar O. parietinus. It is most often found on house walls (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Opilio canestrinii (Thorell, 1876) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-01-21.

The first documented occurrence of the species in Luxembourg dates from 2009. It was found by C. Muster on 20th August 2009 in Fort Berlaimont (Municipality of Luxembourg).

Opilio canestrinii is the second most common harvestman in Luxembourg and can be found in every region of the country.

Opilio canestrinii colonises a number of open habitats independently of their moisture levels. It is very successful in man-made landscapes, even in bigger cities. It is a strong competitor to native species and seems able to displace or even replace them. There are indicators that the similar Opilio parietinus, traditionally a common species on house walls, has nearly vanished, just a few years after the arrival of O. canestrinii.

Several sources describe this harvestman as a typical species of urban areas. In Luxembourg however, the data provided from different projects show evidence that the species occurs in great numbers and important percentages even in close-to-nature areas. Since the 1960s, O. canestrinii has spread extremely quickly northwards through Europe and has become a more or less common species in their new areas.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B3 (3+2+3+1) = Watch List (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Opilio canestrinii. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-05]
  • GBIF, 2020. Opilio canestrinii in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-03-05]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Opilio canestrinii in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-05]
  • Muster, C. & M. Meyer, 2014. Verbreitungsatlas der Weberknechte des Großherzogtums Luxemburg. Ferrantia 70. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, 112 S. (PDF 3.8 MB)
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Weber, D. (Hrsg.), 2014. Die Höhlenfauna Luxemburgs. Ferrantia 69. Musée national d’histoire naturelle Luxembourg, 408 pp. + CD-Rom (PDF 19 MB)
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. Opilio canestrinii. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 17 January 2019, 10:39 UTC, &lt;https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Opilio_canestrinii&amp;oldid=878854172&gt; [accessed 2020-03-05]

 Page content last updated on 2021-05-14. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-10.

Leiobunum sp.

English n/a Status LU: established. 1st record: ?
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: established. 1st record: ~2000 (NL).
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C2. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Namenloser Rückenkanker Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Leiobunum Wikipedia - Deutsch - Namenloser Rückenkanker Nederlands | Wikispecies: n/a (2020)
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Mainz fg03Since probably 2000, a completely unknown harvestman started its quick expansion through Central Europe. The species could be classified in the genus Leiobunum, but is different from other European species. It has been named provisionally as Leiobunum sp. (sensu Wijnhoven et al. 2007). It is assumed that it arrived with ships from overseas, probably reaching the Netherlands first. It is still unknown exactly where it came from (Wijnhoven et al. 2007).

The area of origin is unknown to date, since about 2000 the species has probably spread from the Netherlands into Western Germany on both sides of the Rhine valley to Switzerland and Vorarlberg (Wijnhoven et al. 2007), in the meantime also to Schleswig-Holstein (Staudt 2012).

Habitat: Primarily possibly a rock dweller, in Europe in habitats of anthropogenic origin: industrial wastelands, ruins and house walls (Wijnhoven et al. 2007). Leiobunum sp. generally tend to cluster together during the day. This behaviour is even more pronounced in the species in question. Mass aggregations of several hundreds of individuals have been observed. Many observations show that in spite of its high reproduction rate this “new” Leiobunum sp. seems to coexist well with indigenous species and integrates in the native fauna without great damage. But surely great colonies of the species compete for food with other similar predators.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Leiobunum sp. in Luxembourg. Source: Muster & Meyer 2014: 80.

No records of Leiobunum sp. (sensu Wijnhoven et al. 2007) are present in the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020).

Already widespread in the Gutland, Leiobunum sp. still largely absent in the Ösling (Muster & Meyer 2014: 79). In Luxembourg exclusively synanthropic, larger aggregations have so far only been observed on industrial ruins in the Minette area, in small numbers of individuals in many places on average house walls.

Remarks (Muster & Meyer 2014: 82): Due to the occurrence of mass aggregations with > 1000 specimens the species became the focus of media and sensation-hungry public after 2007. Suddenly, weavers were the focus of exhibitions, local publications, radio and television broadcasts. Wijnhoven et al. (2007) also warned urgently of an imminent invasion of unprecedented proportions and possible dramatic effects on the native opilionid fauna. A few years after this initial uncertainty, the situation is now much more relaxed. Despite the now widespread distribution in Luxembourg, no mass increases could be registered. Only in the former Goodyear test site near Esch-sur-Alzette and at industrial ruins near Rodange larger colonies of 100-200 specimens were sighted. Otherwise only smaller groups of maximum 10 specimens were observed, often only single specimens. It was noticeable that often only one dwelling house per small village was inhabited, while other similar houses remained unoccupied. In this context, observations from the Ruhr area seem interesting, according to which the animals show a preference for calcareous surfaces rich in structure (Toss 2010). The effects on other weaver’s apprentice species are also likely to be less severe than originally assumed. Leiobunum rotundum is often found at or even within aggregations of the Nameless Spine Anchor, while they even seem to evade Dicranopalpus ramosus (Wijnhoven 2011).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C2 (2+2+2+1) (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Bibliography

  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-05]
  • Muster, C. & M. Meyer, 2014. Verbreitungsatlas der Weberknechte des Großherzogtums Luxemburg, Ferrantia 70. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, 112 S. [pp. 79-82] (PDF 3.8 MB)
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Staudt, A., 2012. Nachweiskarten der Spinnentiere Deutschlands (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones). http://www.spiderling.de/arages/
  • Toss, K., 2010. Auffällig unauffällig: Der bislang unbestimmte Weberknecht der Gattung Leiobunum ist im westlichen Ruhrgebiet weit verbreitet. Elektronische Aufsätze der Biologischen Station Westliches Ruhrgebiet 19: 1-5.
  • Wijnhoven, H., A.L. Schönhofer & J. Martens, 2007. An unidentified harvestman Leiobunum sp. alarmingly invading Europe (Arachnida: Opiliones). Arachnol. Mitt. 34: 27-38. (https://www.natur-in-nrw.de/Download/Martens_Leiobunum_2007.pdf)

 Page content last updated on 2020-03-05. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-10.

Dermacentor marginatus Leach, 1815

English Sheep tick Status LU: absent
Lëtzebuergesch Schofszeck Status Eur.: established.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C0. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Schafzecke Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Français - Dermacentor marginatus Wikipedia - Deutsch - Schafzecke | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Dermacentor marginatus
Nederlands  n/a Back to the list of invertebrates

Important note

In 2015, six Dermacentor ticks were collected in SE-Luxembourg. Previously, these individuals had been identified as Dermacentor marginatus Leach, 1815. However, morphological re-investigation as well as DNA barcoding identified the specimens as Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794). Thus only D. reticulatus is known from Luxembourg (Weigand et al. 2020).

Brief description

Dermacentor marginatusDermacentor marginatus Leach, 1815 is a species of tick of the family Ixodidae, which is a vector of several zoonotic diseases, which is why this tick is considered to pose particular eco-epidemiological and public health risks for humans (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

In Central Europe the sheep tick is the most common species of the genus. It lives here only in heat islands and on sunny slopes or dry grasslands. Mammals, including humans, are preferred as hosts. The animals of the genus transmit tularemia (Francisella tularensis), Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia richettsii), Q-fever (Rickettsia burneti), bovine anaplasmosis, puppy-babesiosis (Babesia canis) (Source: http://www.ijon.de/zecken/system.html#zecke).

It is one of the species that could be favoured by global warming, which would allow it to move northwards, but also upwards (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

The tick Dermacentor marginatus Leach, 1815 is absent from Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Following the morphological re-investigation as well as DNA barcoding that identified all the specimens as Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) (Weigand et al. 2020), Dermacentor marginatus is considered absent from Luxembourg and was reassessed on 29 October 2020 to C0 (2+1+2+1). Initial assessment: C1 (2+1+2+1) (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Direction de la Santé, 2016. Attention aux tiques! Comment se protéger? Dépliant. Luxembourg. URL: https://sante.public.lu/fr/prevention/tiques/
  • GBIF, 2020. Dermacentor marginatus in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-03-05]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Dermacentor marginatus in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-05]
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Weigand, A., J. Teixeira & S. Christian, 2020. First record of Hyalomma marginatum sensu stricto C.L. Koch, 1844 and distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) (Acari, Ixodidae) in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. nat. luxemb. 122 : 253-263.
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. Dermacentor marginatus. Wikipédia, l’encyclopédie libre. URL: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermacentor_marginatus [accessed 2020-03-05]

 Page content last updated on 2021-05-14. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-10.

Cheiracanthium punctorium (Villers, 1789)

English Yellow sac spider 1 Status LU: established. 1st record: 1988.
Lëtzebuergesch Getëppelten Darfanger Status Eur.: established.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C2. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Ammendornfinger Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Yellow sac spider Wikipedia - Français - Chiroconthe ponctu Wikipedia - Deutsch - Ammen-Dornfinger Wikipedia - Nederlands - Grote bermzakspin | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Cheiracanthium punctorium | wiki.arages.de
Nederlands Grote bermzakspin Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Female Cheiracanthium punctorium in opened cocoon. Clutch of eggs in the Back of the cocoon.Cheiracanthium punctorium (Villers, 1789) lives in grasslands, preferring tall stalks. Being rather similar to several native Cheiracanthium species in its biology, C. punctorium should have no greater influence on the composition of native prey species in a colonised biotope. There may, however, be some competition with similar predators.

The species is known as quite aggressive when disturbed, especially pregnant or egg-protecting females. The chelicerae (fangs) of bigger individuals can easily penetrate through human skin and inject their venom. A bite of C. punctorium is painful and causes itching and swellings, and sometimes stronger reactions like vertigo, nausea, shivering, circulatory collapse and light fever. The symptoms usually decline after 24-30 hours. As the species leads a rather hidden lifestyle, the probability for bites should be rather small. There is a certain, but unfortunately sometimes overstated, media exposure of the species and its venomousness.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Cheiracanthium punctorium (Villers, 1789) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-01-21.

Cheiracanthium punctorium (Villers, 1789) was first documented in 1988 at the Aarnescht nature conservation reserve near Oberanven, municipality of Niederanven (Hermann 1998).

The species is rather thermophilous and therefore geographically restricted to the south of Luxembourg. Most observations have been made in dry grassland in the Moselle valley. Climate warming may favour further spread of the species.

Currently, 12 records of the species are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal; at the previously mentioned Aarnescht, and also at Roudebierg and Haard near Dudelange (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2021).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C2 (2+2+2+1) (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Distribution in Europe

Source: Arachnologische Gesellschaft (2020).

Bibliography

  • Arachnologische Gesellschaft, 2020. Atlas of the European Arachnids, accessed at https://atlas.arages.de [accessed 2020-03-05]
  • Hermann, E., 1998. Die Spinnen (Araneae) ausgewählter Halbtrockenrasen im Osten Luxemburgs. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 99: 189-199. [PDF 165KB]
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Cheiracanthium punctorium (Villers, 1789) in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-24]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021. Cheiracanthium punctorium (Villers, 1789) in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-24]
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Schneider, N., 2003. Auf Spurensuche. 22. Op der Aarnescht. Regulus 12/03: 22
  • Thiel, M., 2016. Ein unheimlicher Zuwanderer. Eine südeuropäische Giftspinne zieht zunehmend nach Norden. Luxemburger Wort, 14.9.2016.

 Page content last updated on 2021-04-14. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-05.

Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)

English Wasp spider Status LU: established. 1st record: 1906.
Lëtzebuergesch Harespelspann Status Eur.: established.
Français Argiope frelon RA: ISEIA: C3. Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Wespenspinne Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Wasp spider Wikipedia - Français - Argiope frelon Wikipedia - Deutsch - Wespenspinne Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Wespspin Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Argiope_bruennichi_Belgrad_060714

Argiope bruennichi in a pasture near Frisange (14.07.2006)

Like many other members of its genus, Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) shows striking yellow and black markings on its abdomen. The spider builds a spiral orb web at dawn or dusk, commonly in long grass a little above ground level (Wikipedia contributors 2019a).

Until around 50 years ago, the wasp spider was widespread in southern Europe, and very rarely present in central Europe. Since then the species has greatly enlarged and extended its area. Now it can be found in almost all European countries, as well as in some Asian and North African countries (Wikipedia contributors 2019b). The rapid spread of the species across Europe is generally thought to be facilitated by climate warming.

On sites where this strikingly marked spider occurs, the individual number can be very high. Argiope bruennichi populations might be a certain threat for rare species of their favourite prey and provoke changes in invertebrate communities of conquered sites. However the spider seems to integrate rather well in invaded countries, causing no great damage.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-01-21.

Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) was first documented by Dr Ernest Feltgen on 24 August 1906 in Lintgen (Weinachter 1906; MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 188 records of the wasp spider are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

The species can be considered as widespread in the Grand Duchy.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C3 (2+2+2+2) (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Argiope bruennichi. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-04]
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-16]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-16]
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Weinachter, P., 1906. Comptes Rendus des Séances Fauna 16, 10: 215. [eluxembourgensia]
  • Weiss, J., 1992. Die Ecke des Naturbeobachters. Regulus 3/92: 96-97.
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019a. Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) in Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Argiope_bruennichi&oldid=921986406 [accessed 24 October 2019]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019b. Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) in Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie. URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wespenspinne&oldid=192274595 [accessed 24 October 2019]

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-28. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-04.