Asclepias syriaca L.

This species is under work

English Common milkweed Status LU: n/a. 1st record: n/a
Lëtzebuergesch Gewéinlech Seidplanz Status EU: established. IAS of Union concern (2017)
Français Asclépiade commune RA: ISEIA: B0, Alert list. Harmonia+: 0.26
Deutsch Gewöhnliche Seidenpflanze Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Wikipedia - Français Wikipedia - Deutsch Wikipedia - Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Gewoon zijdeplant Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Asclepias syriaca sl 2

Asclepias syriaca on ballast near Karnabrunn, district Korneuburg, Lower Austria. Photo: Stefan.lefnaer, 30 June 2012. commons.wikimedia.org

Asclepias syriaca L. originates from North America and is cultivated as an ornamental. It was introduced into European countries from France to Bulgaria and Russia (potentially invasive) (EPPO 2019). A. syriaca colonises a variety of communities from woodlands to cleared grasslands and marshlands. It grows in clumps or patches in meadows, fencerows, roadsides, railways, waste places, reduced-tillage fields, and other open habitats (CABI 2010). Larger populations can displace native plant and animal species, especially if the species penetrates into habitats worthy of protection. The large leaves shade the soil and thus prevent the emergence of other species (Anonymous 2014).

In 2014, Switzerland added Asclepias syriaca L. to its List of Invasive Alien Plants (EPPO 2019, Anonymous 2014).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Asclepias syriaca L. has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B0 (3+2+2+2) = Alert List. First assessed 22 November 2019 by Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,26 = (Overall Invasion score 0,52 x Overall Impact score 0,50) (Ries et al. in prep.).

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2014. Asclepias syriaca in: Info Flora – Das nationale Daten- und Informationszentrum der Schweizer Flora. URL: https://www.infoflora.ch/de/assets/content/documents/neophyten/inva_ascl_syr_d.pdf
  • CABI, 2010. Asclepias syriaca L. [original text by Claire Teeling]. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global Database: Asclepias syriaca L. URL: https://gd.eppo.int [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, [in prep.]. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-27. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-27.

First record of Solanum rostratum in Luxembourg

Solanum rostratum Dunal was first observed in the wild in Luxembourg on 21 August 2019 by Jörg Zoldan and Annette Steinbach-Zoldan on the border of a maize field in the municipality of Kayl (Southern part of Luxembourg), during a field study on behalf of SICONA.

Description

Solanum rostratum Dunal (spiny or prickly nightshade, Mexican thistle) is a species of nightshade that is native to the US and northern and central Mexico. It is an annual, self-compatible herb that forms a tumbleweed and has abundant spines on the stems and leaves. In its native range S. rostratum is pollinated by medium- to large-sized bees including bumblebees. The seeds are released when the berries dry and dehisce (split apart) while still attached to the plant (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

This species represents one of the later scientific interests of famed biologist Charles Darwin, who just over a week prior to his death had ordered seeds from a colleague in America, so as to investigate their heteranthery, a topic he was interested in (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Solanum rostratum is the ancestral host plant of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, but this pest adopted the potato, Solanum tuberosum as a new (and more succulent) host, a fact first reported in eastern Nebraska in 1859. It then expanded its range rapidly eastward on potato crops in the next two decades (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Solanum rostratum as an invasive alien weed

Solanum rostratum is a taprooted annual plant known to be a noxious weed in parts of the USA and Canada, and is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds as an ‘agricultural weed’, ‘casual alien’, ‘environmental weed’, ‘naturalised’, ‘noxious weed’, and ‘weed’ across tropical and temperate regions of the world. It is a fast-growing, vigorous weed native to Mexico and the United States and now widely introduced including into Asia, Oceania and Europe (Austria, Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Russia, Slovakia, UK, Ukraine). The species invades ecosystems by forming dense colonies, and a single plant can produce hundreds of seeds which are dispersed by both biotic and abiotic vectors, as well as self-propelled by its dehiscent fruit (Datiles & Acevedo-Rodríguez 2014).

Bibliography

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

Publication of a guide for the identification and management of invasive alien plant species on construction sites

The Luxembourg Nature and Forestry Administration has published a guide on the identification and management of invasive alien plant species on construction sites. The 88-page guide is written in French and can be useful to other concerned parties such as biological stations, municipalities and other state administrations that are active in other activities such as nature sites, the development and maintenance of green spaces and along roads.

The guide can be ordered or downloaded from the following web page: https://environnement.public.lu/fr/publications/conserv_nature/plantes_exotiques_envahissantes.html

Citation: Pfeiffenschneider M. et al., 2019. Guide d’identification et de gestion d’espèces de plantes exotiques envahissantes sur les chantiers. 88 pp. Administration de la nature et des forêts (éd.).

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John

English American skunk-cabbage, swamp lantern Status LU: n/a. 1st record: n/a
Lëtzebuergesch Amerikanesch Heckepëppchen Status EU: established. IAS of Union concern (2016)
Français Lysichiton américain RA: ISEIA: B0 – Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,14
Deutsch Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American skunk-cabbage Wikipedia - Français - Lysichiton américain Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia - Nederlands - Moeraslantaarn | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Lysichiton americanus | CABI
Nederlands Moeraslantaarn Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John grows in the transition zone of terrestrial, semi-aquatic and aquatic habitats like swamps, fens, wet meadows, marshy and alluvial woodlands, along streams, riverbanks, lakesides and ponds. It has no specific site condition requirements except the presence of saturated organic soils. It is often found in protected semi-natural habitats. Lysichiton reproduces almost exclusively by seeds, which may be dispersed downstream along waterways. However, spread by natural means is not frequent and rather limited. L. americanus has become established locally in swamp forests and associated wetlands in the EPPO region (resulting most of the time from plantation in the site). After some years, its huge leaves build a dense layer excluding light from native species which are usually not adapted to extreme darkness. It can displace and cause local extinction of rare species of mosses and vascular plants (Carex echinata, Viola palustris, and orchids). (Branquart et al. 2010).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (2+3+3+2) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,14 = (Overall Invasion score 0,34 x Overall Impact score 0,40) (Ries et al. in prep.).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., I. Stiers, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, [in prep.]. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-21. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven

English Creeping water primrose Status LU: n/a. 1st record: n/a
Lëtzebuergesch Krauchend Waasserprimmel Status EU: established. IAS of Union concern (2016)
Français Jussie rampante RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,44
Deutsch Kriechendes Heusenkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Creeping water primrose Wikipedia - Français - Jussie rampante Wikipedia - Nederlands - Kleine Waterteunisbloem | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_peploides | CABI
Nederlands Kleine waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Brief descritpion

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven is an amphibious plant living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Both clonal and sexual reproductions contribute to plant spread across watersheds. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying (Branquart et al. 2013).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,44 = (Overall Invasion score 0,59 x Overall Impact score 0,75) (Ries et al. in prep.).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2013. Harmonia database: Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, [in prep.]. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-21. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet

English Water primrose Status LU: n/a. 1st record: n/a
Lëtzebuergesch Groussbléieg Waasserprimmel Status EU: established. IAS of Union concern (2016)
Français Jussie à grandes fleurs, Grande J. RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,28
Deutsch Großblütiges Heusenkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Français - Jussie à grandes fleurs Wikipedia - Deutsch - Großblütige Heusenkraut Wikipedia - Nederlands - Waterteunisbloem | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_grandiflora | CABI
Nederlands Waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet is an amphibious species living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Invasive spread across watersheds is almost exclusively clonal and brought about by the dispersal of vegetative propagules by waterflow. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying (Branquart et al. 2013).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,28 = (Overall Invasion score 0,46 x Overall Impact score 0,62) (Ries et al. in prep.).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., I. Stiers, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2013. Harmonia database: Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, [in prep.]. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-21. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Wandering cribellate spider Zoropsis spinimana discovered in Echternach

On November 15th 2018 Jos A. Massard and Gaby Geimer discovered a female of the wandering cribellate spider Zoropsis spinimana on the window of a pastry shop in Echternach (Massard & Geimer 2018). This spider is a new species for Luxembourg and is currently spreading throughout Europe. The detailed up-to-date distribution of the species can be found on the Luxembourgian Wikipedia (Wikipedia-Bearbeiter 2018).

The home of Zoropsis spinimana is the western Mediterranean region up to the southern edge of the Alps and Dalmatia, as well as North Africa, where it occurs in the open in light forests, under stones and bark, or in and around buildings (Wikipedia contributors 2018).

References

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

Increasing understanding of alien species through citizen science

In July 2018 a group of countries launched a European CO-operation in Science and Technology (COST) Action to address multidisciplinary research questions in relation to developing and implementing Citizen Science (CS), advancing scientific understanding of Alien Species (AS) dynamics while informing decision-making, specifically implementation of technical requirements of relevant legislation such as the EU Regulation 1143/2014 on IAS. It will also support the EU biodiversity goals of embedding science within society. The Action will explore and document approaches to establishing a European-wide CS AS network.

All details in the following publication:

Roy H, Groom Q, Adriaens T, Agnello G, Antic M, Archambeau A, Bacher S, Bonn A, Brown P, Brundu G, López B, Cleary M, Cogălniceanu D, de Groot M, De Sousa T, Deidun A, Essl F, Fišer Pečnikar Ž, Gazda A, Gervasini E, Glavendekic M, Gigot G, Jelaska S, Jeschke J, Kaminski D, Karachle P, Komives T, Lapin K, Lucy F, Marchante E, Marisavljevic D, Marja R, Martín Torrijos L, Martinou A, Matosevic D, Mifsud C, Motiejūnaitė J, Ojaveer H, Pasalic N, Pekárik L, Per E, Pergl J, Pesic V, Pocock M, Reino L, Ries C, Rozylowicz L, Schade S, Sigurdsson S, Steinitz O, Stern N, Teofilovski A, Thorsson J, Tomov R, Tricarico E, Trichkova T, Tsiamis K, van Valkenburg J, Vella N, Verbrugge L, Vétek G, Villaverde C, Witzell J, Zenetos A, Cardoso A (2018) Increasing understanding of alien species through citizen science (Alien-CSI). Research Ideas and Outcomes 4: e31412. https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.4.e31412

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

First record of Amaranthus cruentus in Luxembourg

Field of Amaranthus cruentus between Ell and Lannen, 20th September 2017. Photo by Claire Wolff, SICONA.

Amaranthus cruentus L. was first observed in the wild 1 in Luxembourg, on 28th August 2018, on the border of maize fields and a pasture between Ell and Lannen in the Canton of Redange (Midwestern area of Luxembourg).

An on-site inspection on 29th August 2018 revealed that the population extends over 300m at the edge of the fields and at the roadside between the coordinates LUREF 56775 E | 93241 N and 56758 E | 93542 N. Several specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the National Museum of Natural History.

This population is probably a consequence of the cultivation of this species on an adjacent field in 2017, as the photo on the right illustrates.

Image gallery

Photos by Christian Ries, MNHNL, 29th August 2018.

Useful links

 

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.