Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl

English Tall annual willowherb Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 2021., ITW: 2021.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: 1978.
Français Épilobe d’automne RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Kurzfrüchtiges Weidenröschen Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl.,  is a species of willowherb known by the common names tall willowherb, tall annual willowherb, panicled willowherb and tall fireweed. It is native to and widespread in North America, where it is a resident of varied open and woodland habitats. It has also been introduced to some areas in South America and Europe. E. brachycarpum is a tall glandular, hairy annual herb occasionally reaching two metres in height. The flower has four petals which may be so deeply notched that they look like four pairs. They are generally light purple or pink, with darker veining. The fruit is a capsule 1 to 3 centimetres long.

It grows in wasteland, disturbed areas, sunny sites, on stony ground. It is a pioneer species, in the process of establishing itself in Europe (Germany, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg,…). The distribution map from CABI as indicated here below is thus to be considered as incomplete. The plant seems to be spreading along roads and particularly railways. In its native range, it grows on dry or seasonally moist, often disturbed soil, in open woods, meadows, especially along roadsides, and riverbanks, up to an altitude of 3,300 m. (Wikipedia contributors 2022, Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl. was recorded for the first time in Luxembourg in 2021 on a worksite in the locality of GrevelsA second record of the species was made in the same year on a worksite in Eschdorf. The various populations of E. brachycarpum observed during that year have been found on fallow land that has been uncultivated for a maximum of three years and were linked to construction works around Esch-sur-Sûre (drinking water treatment plant and new SEBES pipeline) (Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Currently, a third record (in Diekirch) of the species in Luxembourg is accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2022).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Epilobium brachycarpum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Epilobium brachycarpum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilobium_brachycarpum> [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wolff, J.-P. & Y. Krippel, 2022. Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl (Onagraceae), une nouvelle espèce pour la flore du Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 124: 3-8. [PDF 5,13 MB]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Amorpha fruticosa L.

English False indigo-bush Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 1934, ITW 1934.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: .
Français Amorphe buissonnante RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Bastardindigo Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Bastaard indigostruik Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Amorpha fruticosa L. originates from North America and is cultivated as an ornamental. It was introduced in Europe from France to Russia (EPPO 2022). The fast-growing, deciduous shrub grows preferentially in wetlands, like riparian and alluvial habitats, sandy banks of ravines, coastal areas, and dunes. However, it tolerates some disturbed areas, such as plantations, orchards, meadows and urban areas. Due to its high reproductive capacity, A. fruticosa can form dense thickets that outcompete native flora, change successional patterns and reduce biodiversity. It is now generally accepted to be among the most invasive alien species in Europe. Repeated cutting and mowing can help to control populations of this species (CABI 2022). 

In 2014, Switzerland added the Fabaceae to its List of Invasive Alien Plants (EPPO 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Amorpha fruticosa L. has been recorded for the first time in Luxembourg in 1934 in Noertzange (Herbier Witry).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Amorpha fruticosa. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Amorpha fruticosa‘, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 9 August 2022, 01:26 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilobium_brachycarpum> [accessed 2022-08-22]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque, 1820)

English Black bullhead Status LU: established. 1st record: 1892.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: established.
Français Poisson-chat commun RA: not yet assessed. Harmonia+: not yet assessed.
Deutsch Schwarzer Zwergwels Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Brown bullhead Wikipedia - Français - Barbotte brune Wikipedia - Deutsch - Katzenwels Wikipedia - Nederlands - Bruine dwergmeerval | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ameiurus nebulosus
Nederlands Zwarte dwergmeerval Back to the list of vertebrates

Brief description

Ameiurus melas L., the black bullhead or black bullhead catfish is a species of bullhead catfish. Like other bullhead catfish, it has the ability to thrive in waters that are low in oxygen, brackish, turbid and/or very warm. It also has barbels located near its mouth, a broad head, spiny fins, and no scales. It can be identified from other bullheads as the barbels are black, and it has a tan crescent around the tail. Its caudal fin is truncated (squared off at the corners). Like virtually all catfish, it is nocturnal, preferring to feed at night, although young feed during the day. It has a typical length of 8-14 in, with the largest specimen being 24 in, making it the largest of the bullheads. It is typically black or dark brown on the dorsal side of its body and yellow or white on the ventral side.

Like most of the bullheads it has a squared tail fin, which is strikingly different from the forked tail of channel and blue catfish. It is a bottom-rover fish, meaning it is well-adapted for bottom living.

The species, which is known to be invasive, was brought to Europe as early as the 19th century and later also spread through the aquarium trade. In warmer waters, the bullhead, which is tolerant of oxygen deficits and higher temperatures, often reproduces very strongly.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

In 1892, eight live specimens of Ameiurus melas L. were introduced in a pond near Diekirch. In 1996/1997, the species could not be detected during a systematic survey. In 1998, the black bullhead was documented by a recreational fisherman in the Moselle near Bech-Kleinmacher. In 2005, 2 adult and 300 juvenile bullheads were caught in the Moselle near Stadtbredimus during a systematic survey. A second breeding occurrence of about 500 individuals was observed in the same year in the marina near Schwebsange. The black bullhead has established itself as an independent population in the Luxembourgian Moselle (Administration de la Gestion de l’Eau 2010).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Administration de la gestion de l’eau, 2010. Les poissons au Luxembourg : Cartographie des poissons, lamproies et écrevisses du grand-duché de Luxembourg. 2e éd., 213 pp.

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Pistia stratiotes L.

English Water lettuce Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2022).
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Wassersalat Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Pistia stratiotes L., is often called water cabbage, water lettuce, Nile cabbage, or shellflower. Its native distribution is uncertain but is probably pantropical; it was first discovered from the Nile near Lake Victoria in Africa.It is now present, either naturally or through human introduction, in nearly all tropical and subtropical fresh waterways and is considered an invasive species as well as a mosquito breeding habitat. It floats on the surface of the water, its roots hanging submersed beneath floating leaves.

Water lettuce is among the world’s most productive freshwater aquatic plants and is considered an invasive species. The species can be introduced to new areas by water dispersal, fragmentation, and hitchhiking on marine transportation or fishing equipment. The invasion of Pistia stratiotes in the ecosystem can lead to environmental and socio-economic ramifications to the community it serves. In waters with high nutrient content, particularly those that have been contaminated with human loading of sewage or fertilizers, water lettuce can exhibit weedy overgrowth. It may also become invasive in hydrologically altered systems such as flood control canals and reservoirs. The severe overgrowth of water lettuce can block gas exchange in the surface water, creating hypoxic conditions and eliminating or disrupting various native marine organisms. Blocking access to sunlight, large mats of water lettuce can shade native submerged plants and alter communities relying on these native plants as a source of food. The growth of these mats can also get tangled in boat propellers and create challenges for boaters or recreational fishermen. (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

IAS of Union concern

In 2022, Pistia stratiotes L. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2022) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Pistia stratiotes L. has not yet been recorded in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2022. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1203 of 12 July 2022 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 to update the list of invasive alien species of Union concern. Official Journal of the European Union L 186: 10 – 13 (13.7.2022).
  • CABI, 2010. Pistia stratiotes. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-19]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Pistia stratiotes’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pistia> [accessed 2022-08-19]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal

English Himalayan knotweed Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2022).
Français Renouée de l’Himalaya RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Himalaja-Knöterich Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal, commonly known as Himalayan knotweed is a species of flowering plant in the knotweed family. The species is native to Asia (southwestern China, Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Afghanistan) and it is planted in many places as an ornamental. It has the capacity to become an invasive species and has established itself in some parts of North America, primarily the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada, as well as in the UK and Belgium. It is an invasive weed in the mountains of Sri Lanka.

Koenigia polystachya is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing thick, hollow, erect stems easily exceeding one metre (40 inches) in length. Via its rhizomes it can form dense colonies. It may also spread asexually if sections of the stem containing rooting nodes are separated and moved to a new area; chopping the plant into small pieces does not necessarily keep it from growing. The hairy leaves are up to 20 centimetres (8 inches) long. The branching inflorescence is an array of lacy clusters of many small white flowers. Called thothnay in Sikkim and Darjeeling areas of India, the pleasantly sour-tasting edible shoots and stems are used as a vegetable or used to make piquant condiments and accompaniments for meals. (Wikipedia contributors 2021).

IAS of Union concern

In 2022, Koenigia polystachyaetaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2022) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal has not yet been recorded in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2022. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1203 of 12 July 2022 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 to update the list of invasive alien species of Union concern. Official Journal of the European Union L 186: 10 – 13 (13.7.2022).
  • CABI, 2010. Persicaria wallichii. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-19]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Koenigia polystachya’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koenigia_polystachya> [accessed 2022-08-19]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Phytolacca americana L.

English
American pokeweed
Status LU: established. 1st record: LU <1946, ITW 1980.
Lëtzebuergesch Amerikanesch Kermesbier Status Eur.: established. 1st record: Med. ~1650.[1]The species was introduced around 1650 into the Mediterranean area to be used as a dye-plant (Balogh & Juhász 2008).
Français Raisin d’Amérique, Teinturier RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Amerikanische Kermesbeere Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American pokeweed Wikipedia - Français - Raisin d'Amérique, Teinturier Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanische Kermesbeere Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Phytolacca americana | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Phytolacca americana sl25

Mature Pokeweed in a xerothermic wood in Lower Austria

Phytolacca americana L. is widely naturalised in ruderal sites and in nature-like habitats in southern Europe, extending northwards to central France. Semi-natural habitats colonised include heaths, open woodlands, clearcut areas and forest edges. In Belgium, it is commonly used as an ornamental; it is planted in gardens and public green areas but doesn’t reproduce in the wild so far. Under suitable environmental conditions, the American pokeweed forms dense populations that can outcompete native vegetation and prevent regeneration of forest species. The plant produces toxic saponins (Branquart et al. 2010).

IAS of Union concern

In 2020, Phytolacca americana L. was proposed as a candidate species to join the list of invasive alien species of Union concern.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Phytolacca americana L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-10-07.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the Museum dates back to the 19th century: it is a specimen from Siebenbürgen from the A. Georges herbarium in Gotha found in the Koltz herbarium, probably an exchange specimen (Specimen № 15712, MNHNL 2000-).

The oldest reference to Phytolacca in Luxembourg is found in the Bulletin of the Luxembourg Naturalist Society, when Eugène Beck circulates a sample of Phytolacca […], known from some of Luxembourg City’s ornamental gardens (Anonyme 1946). We assume it to be Phytolacca americana L., as Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. has not yet been observed in Luxembourg. It was first recorded in Belgium in 1960 (Verloove 2021).

The first documentation of the American pokeweed in the wild was recorded in 1980 by Pierre Becker in a fir plantation downstream of Soup in the municipality of Heffingen (Reichling 1985: 136; Obs. key: DSS00465000000CI in MNHNL 2000-).

Grown for ornamental purposes in gardens. Very rare subspontaneous or adventitious; naturalised towards the SW limit of the Flora’s territory: roadsides, waste ground, … The fruits of this species are poisonous, unlike those of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., which is also grown in gardens for ornamental purposes, but especially for its fruits used as a colouring agent (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 122).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (2+2+3+2) = Watch List. First assessed 2021-02-16 by C. Ries & Y. Krippel.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonyme, 1946. Comptes-rendus des séances de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois. Séances hebdomadaires du mois d’octobre 1946. Lundi, 24 octobre. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois 51 (2): 54.
  • Balogh L. & M. Juhász, 2008. American and Chinese pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L., Ph. esculenta van Houtte). – In: Botta-Dukát Z. & Balogh L. (eds): The most important invasive plants in Hungary. HAS IEB, Vácrátót, pp. 37–42.
  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Phytolacca americana L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2021-02-15]
  • CABI, 2019. Phytolacca americana L. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2021-02-15]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Phytolacca americana L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2021-02-15]
  • Reichling, L. 1985. Travaux de la Société. Séance du 8 mars 1982. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 85: 135-136.
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Verloove, F., 2021. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. On: Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium. Botanic Garden Meise, Belgium. At: alienplantsbelgium.be, accessed 2021-02-16.
    http://alienplantsbelgium.be/taxonomy/term/4773/descriptions

 Page content last updated on 2021-12-03. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2021-03-03.

References

References
1 The species was introduced around 1650 into the Mediterranean area to be used as a dye-plant (Balogh & Juhász 2008).

Hyalomma marginatum C. L. Koch, 1844

English n/a Status LU: casual. 1st record: 2018.
Lëtzebuergesch Gerändert Glasaenzeck Status Eur.: established.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: n/a. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch n/a Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Hyalomma marginatum Wikipedia - Français - Hyalomma marginatum Wikipedia - Deutsch - Hyalomma marginatum Wikipedia - Dutch - Hyalomma marginatum | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Hyalomma marginatum
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Hyalomma marginatumHyalomma marginatum C. L. Koch, 1844 is a species of tick within the Ixodidae family, with a distribution in subtropical regions of the Old World. The sexual animals (imagines) suck blood from a variety of mammalian species, preferably hoofed animals, but occasionally also from humans. Immature forms occur on a variety of vertebrates, including migratory birds. The species has medical importance as a vector of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and typhus (Wikipedia Bearbeiter, 2020).

This tick has been implicated in the transmission of Bahig virus, a pathogenic arbovirus previously thought to be transmitted only by mosquitoes (Wikipedia contributors 2020).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Hyalomma marginatum C. L. Koch, 1844 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-10-07.

A male Hyalomma marginatum sensu stricto C. L. Koch, 1844 was collected on 2018-08-31 in the city of Dudelange, representing the first record of this species in the country. Subsequent to this finding and its media attention, two further Hyalomma sp. sightings were reported. On 2020-06-14, a male H. marginatum sensu stricto was collected in Beaufort while infesting a horse. After release, the tick very quickly tried to escape and turned towards another horse nearby. On 2020-07-06, a female Hyalomma sp. was found crawling on a horse in Aspelt, which was outside for a maximum of five minutes (Fig. 2b). Both latter ticks were collected from the uppermost interior site of the rear legs of the horse, between the thigh and the belly. It was not possible to identify the female tick further since only images were available (Weigand et al. 2020).

Two observations have been reported in the Recorder-Lux database so far (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2022).

Risk assessment

No risk assessments have been done to date.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Direction de la Santé, 2016. Attention aux tiques! Comment se protéger? Dépliant. Luxembourg. URL: https://sante.public.lu/fr/prevention/tiques/
  • GBIF, 2020. Hyalomma marginatum in GBIF Secretariat. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://www.gbif.org/species/4548126 [accessed 2020-11-02]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [accessed 2022-04-27]
  • Weigand, A., J. Teixeira & S. Christian, 2020. First record of Hyalomma marginatum sensu stricto C.L. Koch, 1844 and distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) (Acari, Ixodidae) in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. nat. luxemb. 122 : 253-263. [PDF 1.79 MB]
  • Wikipedia Bearbeiter, 2020. Hyalomma marginatum. In Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie.  URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyalomma_marginatum [accessed 2020-11-02]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. Hyalomma marginatum. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyalomma_marginatum [accessed 2020-11-02]

 Page content last updated on 2022-05-03. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-11-11.

Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794)

English Marsh tick Status LU: established. 1st record: 2015.
Lëtzebuergesch Suppenzeck Status Eur.: expanding from SE-Europe.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: n/a. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Auwaldzecke Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Dermacentor reticulatus Wikipedia - Français - Dermacentor reticulatus Wikipedia - Deutsch - Auwaldzecke | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Dermacentor marginatus
Nederlands  n/a Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Dermacentor reticulatus M 070825Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, 1794 is a species of tick within the Ixodidae family. It is the type species for the genus Dermacentor. D. reticulatus is an ornate tick. The female varies in size from 3.8–4.2 mm (unfed) to 10 mm when engorged after feeding. The unfed male is 4.2–4.8 mm long. D. reticulatus is found in Europe and Western Asia, generally in wooded areas. D. reticulatus is a vector of various disease organisms, including Babesia canis, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetti, Theileria equi, and several Rickettsia species, such as Rickettsia slovaca (Wikipedia contributors, 2020).

As a habitat, the marsh tick prefers humid areas such as riparian forests and moors as well as deciduous forests. Marsh ticks require a summer temperature of 20-22 °C and rainfall of 400-1000 mm. The ticks are cold-tolerant and can survive hard winters. Originally found in Hungary, Austria and northern Italy, the distribution area of the marsh tick has expanded strongly northwards since the 1970s. In Germany, the first natural population was described in 1973 on the Upper Rhine, and it was probably introduced by dogs. There are now free-ranging populations throughout Germany. Likely causes are an increase in natural biotopes, the associated increase in intermediate hosts, and global warming (Wikipedia Bearbeiter, 2020).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-10-07.

Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, 1794 was first documented by Mark Klinker on 17 November 2015 in Wellenstein, municipality of Schengen (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Between 2015 and 2020, six Dermacentor ticks were collected in the south of Luxembourg. Previously, these individuals had been identified as Dermacentor marginatus Leach, 1815. However, morphological re-investigation as well as DNA barcoding identified the specimens as Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, 1794. Thus only D. reticulatus is known from Luxembourg (Weigand et al. 2020).

52 observations have been reported in the Recorder-Lux database so far (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2022).

The public debate on ticks in Luxembourg

Ticks are a topic of discussion in Luxembourg, both by the authorities (e.g. Direction de la Santé 2016) and by the press (e.g. Weisbrodt 2021). Ticks are regularly the subject of parliamentary questions, e.g. the question on the tick Dermacentor reticulatus submitted by member of parliament Cécile Hemmen in April 2021.

Risk assessment

No risk assessments have been done to date.

Worldwide distribution

GBIF 2020: https://www.gbif.org/species/2183432

Bibliography

  • Direction de la Santé, 2016. Attention aux tiques! Comment se protéger? Dépliant. Luxembourg. URL: https://sante.public.lu/fr/prevention/tiques/
  • GBIF, 2020. Dermacentor reticulatus in GBIF Secretariat. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://www.gbif.org/species/2183432 [accessed 2020-11-02]
  • Hemmen, C., 2021. Question parlementaire n°4143 de Madame Cécile Hemmen du 22 avril 2021 concernant la tique Dermacentor reticulatus au Luxembourg. [chd.lu]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022. Dermacentor reticulatus in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2022-04-27]
  • Weigand, A., J. Teixeira & S. Christian, 2020. First record of Hyalomma marginatum sensu stricto C.L. Koch, 1844 and distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) (Acari, Ixodidae) in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. nat. luxemb. 122 : 253-263. [PDF 1.79 MB]
  • Weisbrodt, S., 2021. Une nouvelle espèce de tique menace les chiens / Insectes parasites [Dermacentor reticulatus]. L’essentiel du jeudi 2021-04-15: 6. URL: http://www.lessentiel.lu/fr/luxembourg/story/une-nouvelle-espece-de-tique-menace-les-chiens-13030864
  • Wikipedia Bearbeiter, 2020. Auwaldzecke. In Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie. Bearbeitungsstand: 28. Oktober 2020, 06:23 UTC. URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Auwaldzecke [accessed 2020-11-02]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. Dermacentor reticulatus. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermacentor_reticulatus [accessed 2020-11-02]

 Page content last updated on 2022-04-28. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-11-13.

Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792)

English Pond slider Status LU: established. 1st record: ?
Lëtzebuergesch Nordamerikanesch Buschtaf-Schmockschillkröt, -deckelsmouk Status Eur.: established. IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français n/a RA: see subspecies elegans & scripta
Deutsch Nordamerikanische Buchstaben-Schmuckschildkröte Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Yellow-bellied slider Wikipedia - Français - Trachemys scripta scripta Wikipedia - Deutsch - Gelbbauch-Schmuckschildkröte | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Trachemys scripta scripta
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of vertebrates

Brief description

Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) is a species of common, medium-sized, semi-aquatic turtle. It has been listed as one of the “Top 100” World’s Worst Invaders. These turtles often fight with native species for food, habitat, and other resources. Eventually they bully many native species out of basking sites – areas where there is sunlight and warmth for the species. When basking it is common that pond sliders will do so on birds’ nests, thereby killing the eggs. They also prey on young birds. Turtles that were raised in captivity can develop diseases that are unfamiliar to native species, which can be harmful. Turtles raised in captivity are often released because they become too much to handle or grow bigger than expected. It’s not uncommon that pond sliders will also run away (Wikipedia contributors 2020).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-10-07.

Currently, 173 records in Luxembourg are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal, when combining the species (145) with its two subspecies, T. scripta scripta (11) and T. scripta elegans (17) present in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Invasive pond sliders have been observed climbing the platforms of waterbirds, especially great crested grebes (Podiceps cristatus), to sunbathe, thus preventing successful breeding (Konter 2020: 81).

More details are available on the pages dedicated to both subspecies (see their distribution maps below).

Records of Trachemys scripta elegans Wied-Neuwied, 1839 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-10-07.

Records of Trachemys scripta scripta Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-10-07.

Management

Action plan

Finalised Action Plan for Trachemys scripta (De Sousa 2020)

Risk assessment

See the subspecies pages for further details.

Worldwide distribution

Other Trachemys taxa

The pond slider Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) has three subspecies (Wikipedia contributors 2020b), of which the first two occur in Luxembourg:

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • De Sousa, Tiago, 2020. Plan d’action pour espèces exotiques envahissantes au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg: la Tortue de Floride, Trachemys scripta spp. (Schoepff, 1792). Version 2020-09-04. Administration de la nature et des forêts, Luxembourg. 24 pp.
  • GBIF, 2019. Trachemys scripta (Thunberg In Schoepff, 1792) in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-04-27]
  • Konter, A., 2020. Schmuckschildkröten Trachemys scripla verhindern mehrere Haubentaucherbruten Podiceps cristalus auf dem Echternacher See. Regulus Wissenschaftliche Berichte 35: 81-86.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Trachemys scripta scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-02-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Trachemys scripta scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-02-04]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. ‘Pond slider’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 8 January 2020, 04:07 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pond_slider&oldid=934733603> [accessed 2020-04-27]

 Page content last updated on 2021-06-15. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-04-30.

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.

English Crimson fountaingrass Status LU: introduced. 1st record: LU 2019, ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Afrikanescht Lanterbotzergras Status Eur.: established. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2017).
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C1. Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Afrikanisches Lampenputzergras Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Starr 040217-0077 Pennisetum setaceum

Pennisetum setaceum on Kahoolawe Island (Hawai)

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov., commonly known as crimson fountaingrass, is a C4 perennial bunch grass that is native to open, scrubby habitats in East Africa, tropical Africa, the Middle East and SW Asia. It has been introduced to many parts of the world as an ornamental plant, and has become an invasive species in some of them. It is drought-tolerant, grows fast, reaches 3 feet in height, and has many purple, plumose flower spikes. Fountaingrass has been introduced to the Canary Islands, Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain, Australia, South Africa, Hawaii, the Western United States, California, southern Florida and New Caledonia. It thrives in warmer, drier areas and threatens many native species, with which it competes very effectively as an invasive species. It also tends to increase the risk of intense wildfires, to which it is well adapted, thus posing a further threat to certain native species (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

IAS of Union concern

In 2017, Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2017) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-10-07.

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was first recorded in Luxembourg in December 2019 in two public parks: two plantings (15 and 29 m2; 9 specimens) in the municipal park of Hesperange (Signoret 2020: 20) and 5 specimens in the Edouard André Municipal Park in Luxembourg City (ibidem: 24) (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C1 (3+2+2+1). First assessed 2021-02-16 by C. Ries & Y. Krippel.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assesed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2017. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2017/1263 of 12 July 2017 updating the list of invasive alien species of Union concern established by Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 182: 37-39 (13.7.2017).
  • CABI, 2010. Pennisetum setaceum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Pennisetum setaceumin MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-04]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Signoret, S., 2020. Inventaire d’espèces exotiques envahissantes dans des arboretums, jardins botaniques et parcs aménagés au Luxembourg. Étude réalisée pour l’Administration de la nature et des forêts, 57 p. [PDF 6MB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. ‘Pennisetum setaceum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pennisetum_setaceum&oldid=918152552> [accessed 2020-03-04]

 Page content last updated on 2022-04-28. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-03-05.