Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792)

English Pond slider Status LU: established. 1st record: ?
Lëtzebuergesch Nordamerikanesch Buschtaf-Schmockschillkröt, -deckelsmouk Status EU: established. IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français n/a RA: see subspecies elegans & scripta
Deutsch Nordamerikanische Buchstaben-Schmuckschildkröte Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Yellow-bellied slider Wikipedia - Français - Trachemys scripta scripta Wikipedia - Deutsch - Gelbbauch-Schmuckschildkröte | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Trachemys scripta scripta
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of vertebrates

Brief description

Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) is a species of common, medium-sized, semi-aquatic turtle. It has been listed as one of the “Top 100” World’s Worst Invaders. These turtles often fight with native species for food, habitat, and other resources. Eventually they bully many native species out of basking sites – areas where there is sunlight and warmth for the species. When basking it is common that pond sliders will do so on birds’ nests, thereby killing the eggs. They also prey on young birds. Turtles that were raised in captivity can develop diseases that are unfamiliar to native species, which can be harmful. Turtles raised in captivity are often released because they become too much to handle or grow bigger than expected. It’s not uncommon that pond sliders will also run away (Wikipedia contributors 2020).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

Currently, 173 records in Luxembourg are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal, when combining the species (145) with its two subspecies, T. scripta scripta (11) and T. scripta elegans (17) present in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

More details are available on the pages dedicated to both subspecies (see their distribution maps below).

Records of Trachemys scripta elegans Wied-Neuwied, 1839 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

Records of Trachemys scripta scripta Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

Risk assessment

See the subspecies pages for further details.

Worldwide distribution

Other Trachemys taxa

The pond slider Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) has three subspecies (Wikipedia contributors 2020b), of which the first two occur in Luxembourg:

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • GBIF, 2019. Trachemys scripta (Thunberg In Schoepff, 1792) in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-04-27]
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Trachemys scripta scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-02-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Trachemys scripta scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-02-04]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. ‘Pond slider’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 8 January 2020, 04:07 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pond_slider&oldid=934733603> [accessed 2020-04-27]

 Page content last updated on 2020-08-31. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-04-30.

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.

English Crimson fountaingrass Status LU: introduced. 1st record: 2019.
Lëtzebuergesch Afrikanescht Lanterbotzergras Status EU: established. IAS of EU concern (2017).
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: n/a. Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Afrikanisches Lampenputzergras Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov., commonly known as crimson fountaingrass, is a C4 perennial bunch grass that is native to open, scrubby habitats in East Africa, tropical Africa, the Middle East and SW Asia. It has been introduced to many parts of the world as an ornamental plant, and has become an invasive species in some of them. It is drought-tolerant, grows fast, reaches 3 feet in height, and has many purple, plumose flower spikes. Fountaingrass has been introduced to the Canary Islands, Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain, Australia, South Africa, Hawaii, the Western United States, California, southern Florida and New Caledonia. It thrives in warmer, drier areas and threatens many native species, with which it competes very effectively as an invasive species. It also tends to increase the risk of intense wildfires, to which it is well adapted, thus posing a further threat to certain native species (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

IAS of Union concern

In 2017, Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2017) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was first recorded in Luxembourg in December 2019 in two public parks: two plantings (15 and 29 m2; 9 specimens) in the municipal park of Hesperange (Signoret 2020: 20) and 5 specimens in the Edouard André Municipal Park in Luxembourg City (ibidem: 24) (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assesed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assesed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2017. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2017/1263 of 12 July 2017 updating the list of invasive alien species of Union concern established by Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 182: 37-39 (13.7.2017).
  • CABI, 2010. Pennisetum setaceum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Asclepias syriaca in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-04]
  • Signoret, S., 2020. Inventaire d’espèces exotiques envahissantes dans des arboretums, jardins botaniques et parcs aménagés au Luxembourg. Étude réalisée pour l’Administration de la nature et des forêts, 57 p.
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. ‘Pennisetum setaceum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pennisetum_setaceum&oldid=918152552> [accessed 2020-03-04]

 Page content last updated on 2020-05-08. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-03-05.

Asclepias syriaca L.

English Common milkweed Status LU: n/a. 1st record: n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Gewéinlech Seidplanz Status EU: established. IAS of EU concern (2017).
Français Asclépiade commune RA: ISEIA: B0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,19
Deutsch Gewöhnliche Seidenpflanze Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Wikipedia - Français Wikipedia - Deutsch Wikipedia - Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Gewoon zijdeplant Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Asclepias syriaca sl 2

Asclepias syriaca on ballast near Karnabrunn, district Korneuburg, Lower Austria. Photo: Stefan.lefnaer, 30 June 2012. commons.wikimedia.org

Asclepias syriaca L. originates from North America and is cultivated as an ornamental. It was introduced into European countries from France to Bulgaria and Russia (potentially invasive) (EPPO 2019). A. syriaca colonises a variety of communities from woodlands to cleared grasslands and marshlands. It grows in clumps or patches in meadows, fencerows, roadsides, railways, waste places, reduced-tillage fields, and other open habitats (CABI 2010). Larger populations can displace native plant and animal species, especially if the species penetrates into habitats worthy of protection. The large leaves shade the soil and thus prevent the emergence of other species (Anonymous 2014).

In 2014, Switzerland added Asclepias syriaca L. to its List of Invasive Alien Plants (EPPO 2019, Anonymous 2014).

IAS of Union concern

In 2017, Asclepias syriaca L. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2017) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Asclepias syriaca L. has not yet been observed in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B0 (3+2+2+2) = Alert List. First assessed 22 November 2019 by Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,19 = (Overall Invasion score 0,52 x Overall Impact score 0,37) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,52Invasion
0,37Impact
0,19Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2014. Asclepias syriaca in: Info Flora – Das nationale Daten- und Informationszentrum der Schweizer Flora. URL: https://www.infoflora.ch/de/assets/content/documents/neophyten/inva_ascl_syr_d.pdf
  • Anonymous, 2017. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2017/1263 of 12 July 2017 updating the list of invasive alien species of Union concern established by Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 182: 37-39 (13.7.2017).
  • CABI, 2010. Asclepias syriaca L. [original text by Claire Teeling]. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global Database: Asclepias syriaca L. URL: https://gd.eppo.int [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Asclepias syriaca in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-02-28]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-27.

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John

English American skunk-cabbage, swamp lantern Status LU: absent. 1st record: n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Amerikanesch Heckepëppchen Status EU: established. IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français Lysichiton américain RA: ISEIA: B0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,14
Deutsch Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American skunk-cabbage Wikipedia - Français - Lysichiton américain Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia - Nederlands - Moeraslantaarn | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Lysichiton americanus | CABI
Nederlands Moeraslantaarn Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Lysichiton americanus 38261Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John grows in the transition zone of terrestrial, semi-aquatic and aquatic habitats like swamps, fens, wet meadows, marshy and alluvial woodlands, along streams, riverbanks, lakesides and ponds. It has no specific site condition requirements except the presence of saturated organic soils. It is often found in protected semi-natural habitats. Lysichiton reproduces almost exclusively by seeds, which may be dispersed downstream along waterways. However, spread by natural means is not frequent and rather limited. L. americanus has become established locally in swamp forests and associated wetlands in the EPPO region (resulting most of the time from plantation in the site). After some years, its huge leaves build a dense layer excluding light from native species which are usually not adapted to extreme darkness. It can displace and cause local extinction of rare species of mosses and vascular plants (Carex echinata, Viola palustris, and orchids). (Branquart et al. 2010).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John has not yet been observed in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (2+3+3+2) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,14 = (Overall Invasion score 0,34 x Overall Impact score 0,40) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,34Invasion
0,40Impact
0,14Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • Branquart, E., I. Stiers, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • CABI, 2019. Lysichiton americanus. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-02]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Lysichiton americanus in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven

English Creeping water primrose Status LU: absent. 1st record: n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Krauchend Waasserprimmel Status EU: established. IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français Jussie rampante RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,44
Deutsch Kriechendes Heusenkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Creeping water primrose Wikipedia - Français - Jussie rampante Wikipedia - Nederlands - Kleine Waterteunisbloem | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_peploides | CABI
Nederlands Kleine waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Brief descritpion

Ludwigia peploides 3Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven is an amphibious plant living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Both clonal and sexual reproductions contribute to plant spread across watersheds. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying (Branquart et al. 2013).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven has not yet been observed in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,44 = (Overall Invasion score 0,59 x Overall Impact score 0,75) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,59Invasion
0,75Impact
0,44Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2013. Harmonia database: Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • CABI, 2019. Ludwigia peploides. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-02]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Ludwigia peploides in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet

English Water primrose Status LU: absent. 1st record: n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Groussbléieg Waasserprimmel Status EU: established. IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français Jussie à grandes fleurs, Grande J. RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,28
Deutsch Großblütiges Heusenkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Français - Jussie à grandes fleurs Wikipedia - Deutsch - Großblütige Heusenkraut Wikipedia - Nederlands - Waterteunisbloem | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_grandiflora | CABI
Nederlands Waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Ludwigia grandiflora kz3Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet is an amphibious species living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Invasive spread across watersheds is almost exclusively clonal and brought about by the dispersal of vegetative propagules by waterflow. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying (Branquart et al. 2013).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet has not yet been observed in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,28 = (Overall Invasion score 0,46 x Overall Impact score 0,62) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,46Invasion
0,62Impact
0,28Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • Branquart, E., I. Stiers, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2013. Harmonia database: Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • CABI, 2019. Ludwigia grandiflora. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-02]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Ludwigia grandiflorain MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901)

Synonyms: Ochlerotatus japonicus, Hulecoeteomyia japonica

English East Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Status LU: established. 1st record: 2018.
Lëtzebuergesch Japanesch Hecke-Moustique Status EU: established.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C2. Harmonia+: 0,34.
Deutsch Asiatische Buschmücke Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - East Asian bush mosquito Wikipedia - Français Wikipedia - Deutsch - Asiatische Buschmücke Wikipedia - Nederlands | Wikispecies: n/a (2020)
Nederlands Aziatische bosmug Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

CDC 7886 Ochlerotatus japonicusAedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901), commonly known as the Asian bush mosquito or the Asian rock pool mosquito, has four known subspecies Ae. j. japonicus, Ae. j. shintienensis, Ae. j. yaeyamensis, and Ae. j. amamiensus. They are competent arbovirus vectors known to transmit the West Nile virus as well as Japanese and St. Louis encephalitis. They are listed as an invasive species by the Global Invasive Species Database.

Adults live in forested areas and are day biters, but are apparently reluctant to bite humans. In the laboratory, they feed on chicks and mice but not on reptiles or amphibians. Larvae occur in a wide variety of natural and artificial water retainers such as tree holes and rock holes, usually preferring shaded places and water rich in organic matter. They are found from early spring to early autumn in their native habitat of Central Japan. They overwinter as eggs in cooler regions and larvae in warmer regions. Adults have a distinctive bronze-colored, lyre-shaped pattern on the scutum, and larvae have a linear arrangement of branched frontal setae and a strongly spiculated anal saddle (Wikipedia contributors 2020).

Advice for the population

Please refer to the Internet page https://mosquitoes.lu/dealing-with-mosquitoes/ for detailed information in 5 languages (Lëtzebuergesch Français Deutsch Portugues English) on how to deal with mosquitoes near your home.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

3 female imagoes of Aedes japonicus (Syn.: Hulecoeteomyia japonica) were captured on 4th July 2018 in Stolzembourg, Oesling. Field exploration on 1st and 2nd August showed the East Asian bush mosquito is also present in Bivels, Vianden, Wahlhausen and Gemünd (D). Further field studies in August and October 2018 revealed the presence of a large population of Aedes japonicus, detected in 16 sites distributed over 12 localities, 12 municipalities, 7 cantons and 3 districts. The colonised area can be estimated to date to cover at least 550 km², located in the east of the Grand Duchy, from the valley of the Our in the north to Ernster in the south, and as far as Kautenbach and Ettelbruck in the west. The mosquito was not detected in neighbouring Belgium (Clairefontaine and Ouren) but it was in Germany, where it has been present for several years in Rhineland-Palatinate and from where it has certainly migrated to the Grand Duchy. We also detected it in the French border town of Contz-les-Bains, which suggests that the mosquito is probably present, although not detected to date, in the region bordering the Moselle, from Manternach to the French border (Schaffner 2018).

Distribution of the mosquito Aedes japonicus known as of 10 October 2018, for Luxembourg and the neighbouring regions of Germany, Belgium and France. Purple: proven presence; Purple with star: data from the German surveillance network; Green: undetected presence (Schaffner 2018).

The species is established in the Province of Namur (Belgium), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse (Germany), and in Bas-Rhin, Haut-Rhin, Vosges (France).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C2 (3+2+2+1), assessment updated on 13 August 2018 by M. Pfeiffenschneider & C. Ries. Former assessment under it’s synonym Hulecoeteomyia japonica: C0 (2+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,34 = (Overall Invasion score 0,67 x Overall Impact score 0,50) (Schaffner & Ries 2019: 178).

0,67Invasion
0,50Impact
0,34Risk

Initial importations and spread in Europe

Source: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/disease-vectors/facts/mosquito-factsheets/aedes-japonicus [accessed July 31 2018]

Aedes japonicus was first reported in Europe in 2000 when it was detected in Normandy (Orne) in northern France, where it was later eliminated. It was then reported in 2002 in Belgium at a tyre depot and presence as adults and larvae was confirmed in 2007 and 2008. It was most likely introduced through the trade of tyres and the population was thought to be established at the company site but does not appear to be spreading. It was detected in Switzerland in 2008 following reports of a biting nuisance and subsequent surveys revealed a 1,400 km colonised zone including an area in Germany. This was the first detection of invasive mosquitoes spreading in central Europe. No obvious route of introduction was identified in this study but it is suspected that the species has been present here for some time. Adult Ae. japonicus were then found in southern Germany during 2011, following intensified surveillance. This resulted in surveillance expanding to cover the entire federal state of Baden-Württemberg where a reduction in the colonised areas compared to 2010 was reported (possibly due to a dry spring during 2011). However, a large, newly infested area was also reported from the city of Stuttgart to the Swabian Mountains. Entomological surveys carried out during 2012 in North Rhine-Westphalia also revealed the presence of an established population in the west of the country. Aedes japonicus were then reported further north in southern Lower Saxony and northeastern North Rhine-Westphalia during spring 2013. It was detected in 2012 and 2013 in Lelystad, the Netherlands.

Source: The map shows the current known distribution of Aedes japonicus in Europe at at ‘regional’ administrative level (NUTS3), as of September 2020 (ECDC & EFSA, 2020).

It is suggested that Aedes japonicus may expand beyond its current geographical distribution but there is still a lack of information available on this invasive mosquito species.

Worldwide distribution

References

  • ECDC & EFSA, 2020. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and European Food Safety Authority. Mosquito maps [internet]. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/disease-vectors/surveillance-and-disease-data/mosquito-maps
  • Ganser, J., 2020. Tigermücke im Anflug. Exotische Stechfliegen finden vermehrt den Weg nach Luxemburg. Das muss aber kein Grund zur Panik sein. Luxemburger Wort online 2020-09-21. URL: https://www.wort.lu/de/lokales/tigermuecke-im-anflug-5f68bdc4de135b9236d06c07
  • GBIF, 2019. Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-04-08]
  • Ministère de la Santé, 2018. Première apparition du moustique japonais « Aedes japonicus » au Luxembourg. Communiqué de presse du 1er août 2018. [PDF 40 KB]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [accessed 2020-04-08]
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Schaffner, F., 2018. Le moustique Aedes japonicus au Luxembourg : État des connaissances au 10 octobre 2018. Rapport de mission pour la Direction de la santé, grand-duché de Luxembourg. 14 p. [PDF 1.4 MB]
  • Schaffner, F. & C. Ries, 2019. First evidence and distribution of the invasive alien mosquito Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 121: 169-183. [PDF 8,94 MB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. ‘Aedes japonicus’ in Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aedes_japonicus&oldid=940631744 [accessed 2020.04.08]

 Page content last updated on 2020-11-08. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-04.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.

English Five-leaved Virginia creeper Status LU: established. 1st record: 1958.
Lëtzebuergesch Fënnefbliedrege wëlle Wäin Status EU: established.
Français Vigne-vierge à cinq folioles RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: 0,34.
Deutsch Selbstkletternde Jungfernrebe Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Five-leaved Virginia creeper Wikipedia - Français - Vigne-vierge à cinq folioles Wikipedia - Deutsch - Selbstkletternde Jungfernrebe Wikipedia - Nederlands - Vijfbladige wingerd | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Parthenocissus quinquefolia | CABI
Nederlands Vijfbladige wingerd Back to the list of neophytes

General note on Parthenocissus spp.

Vigne vierge automneOriginally observed in man-made habitats, these popular garden plants can be found increasingly in natural habitats like coastal dunes, riparian habitats and wood margins (Parthenocissus inserta) or rock outcrops (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). They usually thrive on nutrient-rich soils. Seeds are dispersed over long distances by birds. With its dense growth, the plant may cover, out-compete and kill native vegetation (Branquart et al. 2011).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. was first documented by Léopold Reichling (1921-2009) on 1 June 1958 at the Stromberg peak in the municipality of Schengen (MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 12 records of the five-leaved Virginia creeper are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch has long been confused with Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. originating from North America. However, the latter is distinguished by its more branched twists (5-8 twists per twist, compared to gen. 3-5 in P. inserta), with branches provided at their end with a differentiated adhesive disc (simply swollen at their end in P. inserta) and by its leaflets with more obtuse and generally less deep teeth. A hybrid between the two species is also reported. It remains to be seen whether P. quinquefolia and the above-mentioned hybrid have been found in a subspontaneous state in the wild (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Example of escape into the wild

The five-leaved Virginia creeper escaped from Camping du moulin in Bivels into the neighbouring ruderal and alluvial vegetation along the barrage lake of the river Our. The plants overgrow the vegetation on the ground and the shrub layer, and climb to the top of ash and alder trees. Photos: C. Ries, 29 April 2020.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (3+3+2+2), Watch List, reassessed on 10 July 2018 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Originally assessed together with Parthenocissus inserta as Parthenocissus spp. C1 (1+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,34 = (Overall Invasion score 0,69 x Overall Impact score 0,50) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,69Invasion
0,50Impact
0,34Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2011. Harmonia database: Parthenocissus spp. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-14]
  • CABI, 2019. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-04-28]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2020-05-07. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch

English False Virginia creeper Status LU: established. 1st record: 1883.
Lëtzebuergesch Gewéinleche Wëlle Wäin Status EU: established.
Français Vigne vierge commune RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: 0,34.
Deutsch Gewöhnliche Jungfernrebe Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - False Virginia creeper Wikipedia - Français - Vigne vierge commune Wikipedia - Deutsch - Wilder Wein Wikipedia - Nederlands - Valse wingerd | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Parthenocissus inserta
Nederlands Valse wingerd Back to the list of neophytes

General note on Parthenocissus spp.

Toftenäs Tjörn 2019 08 07 cOriginally observed in man-made habitats, these popular garden plants can be found increasingly in natural habitats like coastal dunes, riparian habitats and wood margins (Parthenocissus inserta) or rock outcrops (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). They usually thrive on nutrient-rich soils. Seeds are dispersed over long distances by birds. With its dense growth, the plant may cover, out-compete and kill native vegetation (Branquart et al. 2011).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the MNHNL was collected in July 1883 by Edmond Joseph Klein (1866-1942) from a cultivated false Virginia creeper in Wiltz (Specimen № 16636, MNHNL 2000-). The next scientific record that we know of was made under its synonym Parthenocissus vitacea Hitchc. by Jean-Jacques Kariger in 1957 on the Wurthsberg in the Clausen district of Luxembourg City (Kariger 1959: 74; MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 4 records of the false Virginia creeper are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

This south and western North American species is melliferous and cultivated to cover walls or facades. Quite frequently subspontaneous or naturalised locally: old walls, hedges, ruderalized forest edges, wastelands, stream banks, slag heaps, railway ballast (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch has long been confused with Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. originating from North America. However, the latter is distinguished by its more branched twists (5-8 twists per twist, compared to gen. 3-5 in P. inserta), with branches provided at their end with a differentiated adhesive disc (simply swollen at their end in P. inserta) and by its leaflets with more obtuse and generally less deep teeth. A hybrid between the two species is also reported. It remains to be seen whether P. quinquefolia and the above-mentioned hybrid have been found in a subspontaneous state in the wild (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (3+3+2+2), reassessed on 10 July 2018 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Originally assessed together with Parthenocissus quinquefolia as Parthenocissus spp. C1 (1+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,34 = (Overall Invasion score 0,69 x Overall Impact score 0,50) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,69Invasion
0,50Impact
0,34Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2011. Harmonia database: Parthenocissus spp. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-14]
  • GBIF, 2020. Parthenocissus inserta (A.Kerner) Fritsch in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Kariger, J.-J., 1959. Florule et capitale: Le Wurthsberg de Clausen et quelques hauteurs analogues. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 62: 59-81. [PDF 1302 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.

Orconectes immunis (Hagen, 1870)

English Papershell crayfish Status LU: absent.
Lëtzebuergesch Kalikokriibs Status EU: established.
Français Ecrevisse calicot RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Kalikokrebs Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Orconectes immunis  Wikipedia - Français - Ecrevisse calicot Wikipedia - Deutsch - Kalikokrebs Nederlands - Calicotrivierkreeft | Wikispecies: n/a (2020)
Nederlands Calicotrivierkreeft Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Orconectes immunis Kalikokrebs calico crayfishOrconectes immunis is a species of crayfish in the family Cambaridae. It is native to North America and it is an introduced species in Europe. O. immunis is only found in slow-flowing bodies of water, such as streams, ponds, marshes and roadside ditches, in contrast to O. virilis which also lives in rivers with moderate flow. It can survive in areas with large fluctuations in the amount of available water, by burrowing into the ground when the surface waters recede. Orconectes immunis has been popular in the aquarium trade in Germany, and is kept as a pet both in aquaria and garden ponds. The first recorded escape was a single individual in a small canal in the Rhine valley of Baden-Württemberg in 1997. It appears to be outcompeting another invasive species, Orconectes limosus, which has been present in the area for five decades (Wikipedia contributors 2018).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Orconectes immunis (Hagen, 1870) has not yet been documented in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020). The species is spreading in several neighbouring countries as France and Germany (cf. Albes 2019).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+3+2) = Alert List (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Albes, J., 2019. Invasoren mit Scheren – Der amerikanische Kalikokrebs vermehrt sich rasant im Rheintal – Für die hiesige Tierwelt eine Katastrophe. Journal 2019-12-11: 18. [PDF 168 KB]
  • GBIF 2020. Orconectes immunis (Hagen, 1870) in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-03-13]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Orconectes immunis in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [accessed 2020-03-13]
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2018. ‘Orconectes immunis’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 14 October 2018, 18:38 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Orconectes_immunis&oldid=864041343> [accessed 2020-03-13]

 Page content last updated on 2020-05-04.