Phytolacca americana L.

English
American pokeweed
Status LU: established. 1st record: LU <1946, ITW 1980.
Lëtzebuergesch Amerikanesch Kermesbier Status Eur.: established. 1st record: Med. ~1650. 1
Français Raisin d’Amérique, Teinturier RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Amerikanische Kermesbeere Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American pokeweed Wikipedia - Français - Raisin d'Amérique, Teinturier Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanische Kermesbeere Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Phytolacca americana | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Phytolacca americana sl25

Mature Pokeweed in a xerothermic wood in Lower Austria

Phytolacca americana L. is widely naturalised in ruderal sites and in nature-like habitats in southern Europe, extending northwards to central France. Semi-natural habitats colonised include heaths, open woodlands, clearcut areas and forest edges. In Belgium, it is commonly used as an ornamental; it is planted in gardens and public green areas but doesn’t reproduce in the wild so far. Under suitable environmental conditions, the American pokeweed forms dense populations that can outcompete native vegetation and prevent regeneration of forest species. The plant produces toxic saponins (Branquart et al. 2010).

IAS of Union concern

In 2020, Phytolacca americana L. was proposed as a candidate species to join the list of invasive alien species of Union concern.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Phytolacca americana L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-05-24.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the Museum dates back to the 19th century: it is a specimen from Siebenbürgen from the A. Georges herbarium in Gotha found in the Koltz herbarium, probably an exchange specimen (Specimen № 15712, MNHNL 2000-).

The oldest reference to Phytolacca in Luxembourg is found in the Bulletin of the Luxembourg Naturalist Society, when Eugène Beck circulates a sample of Phytolacca […], known from some of Luxembourg City’s ornamental gardens (Anonyme 1946). We assume it to be Phytolacca americana L., as Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. has not yet been observed in Luxembourg. It was first recorded in Belgium in 1960 (Verloove 2021).

The first documentation of the American pokeweed in the wild was recorded in 1980 by Pierre Becker in a fir plantation downstream of Soup in the municipality of Heffingen (Reichling 1985: 136; Obs. key: DSS00465000000CI in MNHNL 2000-).

Grown for ornamental purposes in gardens. Very rare subspontaneous or adventitious; naturalised towards the SW limit of the Flora’s territory: roadsides, waste ground, … The fruits of this species are poisonous, unlike those of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., which is also grown in gardens for ornamental purposes, but especially for its fruits used as a colouring agent (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 122).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (2+2+3+2) = Watch List. First assessed 2021-02-16 by C. Ries & Y. Krippel.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonyme, 1946. Comptes-rendus des séances de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois. Séances hebdomadaires du mois d’octobre 1946. Lundi, 24 octobre. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois 51 (2): 54.
  • Balogh L. & M. Juhász, 2008. American and Chinese pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L., Ph. esculenta van Houtte). – In: Botta-Dukát Z. & Balogh L. (eds): The most important invasive plants in Hungary. HAS IEB, Vácrátót, pp. 37–42.
  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Phytolacca americana L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2021-02-15]
  • CABI, 2019. Phytolacca americana L. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2021-02-15]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Phytolacca americana L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2021-02-15]
  • Reichling, L. 1985. Travaux de la Société. Séance du 8 mars 1982. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 85: 135-136.
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Verloove, F., 2021. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. On: Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium. Botanic Garden Meise, Belgium. At: alienplantsbelgium.be, accessed 2021-02-16.
    http://alienplantsbelgium.be/taxonomy/term/4773/descriptions

 Page content last updated on 2021-12-03. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2021-03-03.

Hyalomma marginatum C. L. Koch, 1844

English n/a Status LU: casual. 1st record: 2018.
Lëtzebuergesch Gerändert Glasaenzeck Status Eur.: established.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: n/a. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch n/a Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Hyalomma marginatum Wikipedia - Français - Hyalomma marginatum Wikipedia - Deutsch - Hyalomma marginatum Wikipedia - Dutch - Hyalomma marginatum | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Hyalomma marginatum
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Hyalomma marginatumHyalomma marginatum C. L. Koch, 1844 is a species of tick within the Ixodidae family, with a distribution in subtropical regions of the Old World. The sexual animals (imagines) suck blood from a variety of mammalian species, preferably hoofed animals, but occasionally also from humans. Immature forms occur on a variety of vertebrates, including migratory birds. The species has medical importance as a vector of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and typhus (Wikipedia Bearbeiter, 2020).

This tick has been implicated in the transmission of Bahig virus, a pathogenic arbovirus previously thought to be transmitted only by mosquitoes (Wikipedia contributors 2020).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Hyalomma marginatum C. L. Koch, 1844 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-05-24.

A male Hyalomma marginatum sensu stricto C. L. Koch, 1844 was collected on 2018-08-31 in the city of Dudelange, representing the first record of this species in the country. Subsequent to this finding and its media attention, two further Hyalomma sp. sightings were reported. On 2020-06-14, a male H. marginatum sensu stricto was collected in Beaufort while infesting a horse. After release, the tick very quickly tried to escape and turned towards another horse nearby. On 2020-07-06, a female Hyalomma sp. was found crawling on a horse in Aspelt, which was outside for a maximum of five minutes (Fig. 2b). Both latter ticks were collected from the uppermost interior site of the rear legs of the horse, between the thigh and the belly. It was not possible to identify the female tick further since only images were available (Weigand et al. 2020).

Two observations have been reported in the Recorder-Lux database so far (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2022).

Risk assessment

No risk assessments have been done to date.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Direction de la Santé, 2016. Attention aux tiques! Comment se protéger? Dépliant. Luxembourg. URL: https://sante.public.lu/fr/prevention/tiques/
  • GBIF, 2020. Hyalomma marginatum in GBIF Secretariat. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://www.gbif.org/species/4548126 [accessed 2020-11-02]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [accessed 2022-04-27]
  • Weigand, A., J. Teixeira & S. Christian, 2020. First record of Hyalomma marginatum sensu stricto C.L. Koch, 1844 and distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) (Acari, Ixodidae) in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. nat. luxemb. 122 : 253-263. [PDF 1.79 MB]
  • Wikipedia Bearbeiter, 2020. Hyalomma marginatum. In Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie.  URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyalomma_marginatum [accessed 2020-11-02]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. Hyalomma marginatum. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyalomma_marginatum [accessed 2020-11-02]

 Page content last updated on 2022-05-03. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-11-11.

Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794)

English Marsh tick Status LU: established. 1st record: 2015.
Lëtzebuergesch Suppenzeck Status Eur.: expanding from SE-Europe.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: n/a. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Auwaldzecke Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Dermacentor reticulatus Wikipedia - Français - Dermacentor reticulatus Wikipedia - Deutsch - Auwaldzecke | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Dermacentor marginatus
Nederlands  n/a Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Dermacentor reticulatus M 070825Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, 1794 is a species of tick within the Ixodidae family. It is the type species for the genus Dermacentor. D. reticulatus is an ornate tick. The female varies in size from 3.8–4.2 mm (unfed) to 10 mm when engorged after feeding. The unfed male is 4.2–4.8 mm long. D. reticulatus is found in Europe and Western Asia, generally in wooded areas. D. reticulatus is a vector of various disease organisms, including Babesia canis, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetti, Theileria equi, and several Rickettsia species, such as Rickettsia slovaca (Wikipedia contributors, 2020).

As a habitat, the marsh tick prefers humid areas such as riparian forests and moors as well as deciduous forests. Marsh ticks require a summer temperature of 20-22 °C and rainfall of 400-1000 mm. The ticks are cold-tolerant and can survive hard winters. Originally found in Hungary, Austria and northern Italy, the distribution area of the marsh tick has expanded strongly northwards since the 1970s. In Germany, the first natural population was described in 1973 on the Upper Rhine, and it was probably introduced by dogs. There are now free-ranging populations throughout Germany. Likely causes are an increase in natural biotopes, the associated increase in intermediate hosts, and global warming (Wikipedia Bearbeiter, 2020).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-05-24.

Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, 1794 was first documented by Mark Klinker on 17 November 2015 in Wellenstein, municipality of Schengen (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Between 2015 and 2020, six Dermacentor ticks were collected in the south of Luxembourg. Previously, these individuals had been identified as Dermacentor marginatus Leach, 1815. However, morphological re-investigation as well as DNA barcoding identified the specimens as Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, 1794. Thus only D. reticulatus is known from Luxembourg (Weigand et al. 2020).

52 observations have been reported in the Recorder-Lux database so far (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2022).

The public debate on ticks in Luxembourg

Ticks are a topic of discussion in Luxembourg, both by the authorities (e.g. Direction de la Santé 2016) and by the press (e.g. Weisbrodt 2021). Ticks are regularly the subject of parliamentary questions, e.g. the question on the tick Dermacentor reticulatus submitted by member of parliament Cécile Hemmen in April 2021.

Risk assessment

No risk assessments have been done to date.

Worldwide distribution

GBIF 2020: https://www.gbif.org/species/2183432

Bibliography

  • Direction de la Santé, 2016. Attention aux tiques! Comment se protéger? Dépliant. Luxembourg. URL: https://sante.public.lu/fr/prevention/tiques/
  • GBIF, 2020. Dermacentor reticulatus in GBIF Secretariat. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://www.gbif.org/species/2183432 [accessed 2020-11-02]
  • Hemmen, C., 2021. Question parlementaire n°4143 de Madame Cécile Hemmen du 22 avril 2021 concernant la tique Dermacentor reticulatus au Luxembourg. [chd.lu]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022. Dermacentor reticulatus in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2022-04-27]
  • Weigand, A., J. Teixeira & S. Christian, 2020. First record of Hyalomma marginatum sensu stricto C.L. Koch, 1844 and distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) (Acari, Ixodidae) in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. nat. luxemb. 122 : 253-263. [PDF 1.79 MB]
  • Weisbrodt, S., 2021. Une nouvelle espèce de tique menace les chiens / Insectes parasites [Dermacentor reticulatus]. L’essentiel du jeudi 2021-04-15: 6. URL: http://www.lessentiel.lu/fr/luxembourg/story/une-nouvelle-espece-de-tique-menace-les-chiens-13030864
  • Wikipedia Bearbeiter, 2020. Auwaldzecke. In Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie. Bearbeitungsstand: 28. Oktober 2020, 06:23 UTC. URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Auwaldzecke [accessed 2020-11-02]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. Dermacentor reticulatus. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermacentor_reticulatus [accessed 2020-11-02]

 Page content last updated on 2022-04-28. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-11-13.

Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792)

English Pond slider Status LU: established. 1st record: ?
Lëtzebuergesch Nordamerikanesch Buschtaf-Schmockschillkröt, -deckelsmouk Status Eur.: established. IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français n/a RA: see subspecies elegans & scripta
Deutsch Nordamerikanische Buchstaben-Schmuckschildkröte Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Yellow-bellied slider Wikipedia - Français - Trachemys scripta scripta Wikipedia - Deutsch - Gelbbauch-Schmuckschildkröte | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Trachemys scripta scripta
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of vertebrates

Brief description

Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) is a species of common, medium-sized, semi-aquatic turtle. It has been listed as one of the “Top 100” World’s Worst Invaders. These turtles often fight with native species for food, habitat, and other resources. Eventually they bully many native species out of basking sites – areas where there is sunlight and warmth for the species. When basking it is common that pond sliders will do so on birds’ nests, thereby killing the eggs. They also prey on young birds. Turtles that were raised in captivity can develop diseases that are unfamiliar to native species, which can be harmful. Turtles raised in captivity are often released because they become too much to handle or grow bigger than expected. It’s not uncommon that pond sliders will also run away (Wikipedia contributors 2020).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-05-24.

Currently, 173 records in Luxembourg are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal, when combining the species (145) with its two subspecies, T. scripta scripta (11) and T. scripta elegans (17) present in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Invasive pond sliders have been observed climbing the platforms of waterbirds, especially great crested grebes (Podiceps cristatus), to sunbathe, thus preventing successful breeding (Konter 2020: 81).

More details are available on the pages dedicated to both subspecies (see their distribution maps below).

Records of Trachemys scripta elegans Wied-Neuwied, 1839 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-05-24.

Records of Trachemys scripta scripta Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-05-24.

Management

Action plan

Finalised Action Plan for Trachemys scripta (De Sousa 2020)

Risk assessment

See the subspecies pages for further details.

Worldwide distribution

Other Trachemys taxa

The pond slider Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) has three subspecies (Wikipedia contributors 2020b), of which the first two occur in Luxembourg:

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • De Sousa, Tiago, 2020. Plan d’action pour espèces exotiques envahissantes au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg: la Tortue de Floride, Trachemys scripta spp. (Schoepff, 1792). Version 2020-09-04. Administration de la nature et des forêts, Luxembourg. 24 pp.
  • GBIF, 2019. Trachemys scripta (Thunberg In Schoepff, 1792) in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-04-27]
  • Konter, A., 2020. Schmuckschildkröten Trachemys scripla verhindern mehrere Haubentaucherbruten Podiceps cristalus auf dem Echternacher See. Regulus Wissenschaftliche Berichte 35: 81-86.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Trachemys scripta scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-02-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Trachemys scripta scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-02-04]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. ‘Pond slider’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 8 January 2020, 04:07 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pond_slider&oldid=934733603> [accessed 2020-04-27]

 Page content last updated on 2021-06-15. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-04-30.

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.

English Crimson fountaingrass Status LU: introduced. 1st record: LU 2019, ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Afrikanescht Lanterbotzergras Status Eur.: established. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2017).
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C1. Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Afrikanisches Lampenputzergras Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Starr 040217-0077 Pennisetum setaceum

Pennisetum setaceum on Kahoolawe Island (Hawai)

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov., commonly known as crimson fountaingrass, is a C4 perennial bunch grass that is native to open, scrubby habitats in East Africa, tropical Africa, the Middle East and SW Asia. It has been introduced to many parts of the world as an ornamental plant, and has become an invasive species in some of them. It is drought-tolerant, grows fast, reaches 3 feet in height, and has many purple, plumose flower spikes. Fountaingrass has been introduced to the Canary Islands, Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain, Australia, South Africa, Hawaii, the Western United States, California, southern Florida and New Caledonia. It thrives in warmer, drier areas and threatens many native species, with which it competes very effectively as an invasive species. It also tends to increase the risk of intense wildfires, to which it is well adapted, thus posing a further threat to certain native species (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

IAS of Union concern

In 2017, Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2017) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-05-24.

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was first recorded in Luxembourg in December 2019 in two public parks: two plantings (15 and 29 m2; 9 specimens) in the municipal park of Hesperange (Signoret 2020: 20) and 5 specimens in the Edouard André Municipal Park in Luxembourg City (ibidem: 24) (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C1 (3+2+2+1). First assessed 2021-02-16 by C. Ries & Y. Krippel.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assesed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2017. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2017/1263 of 12 July 2017 updating the list of invasive alien species of Union concern established by Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 182: 37-39 (13.7.2017).
  • CABI, 2010. Pennisetum setaceum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Pennisetum setaceumin MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-04]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Signoret, S., 2020. Inventaire d’espèces exotiques envahissantes dans des arboretums, jardins botaniques et parcs aménagés au Luxembourg. Étude réalisée pour l’Administration de la nature et des forêts, 57 p. [PDF 6MB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. ‘Pennisetum setaceum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pennisetum_setaceum&oldid=918152552> [accessed 2020-03-04]

 Page content last updated on 2022-04-28. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-03-05.

Asclepias syriaca L.

English Common milkweed Status LU: uncertain. 1st record: LU & ITW <1836.
Lëtzebuergesch Gewéinlech Seideplanz Status Eur.: established. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2017).
Français Asclépiade commune RA: ISEIA: B0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,19
Deutsch Gewöhnliche Seidenpflanze Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Wikipedia - Français Wikipedia - Deutsch Wikipedia - Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Gewoon zijdeplant Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Asclepias syriaca sl 2

Asclepias syriaca on ballast near Karnabrunn, district Korneuburg, Lower Austria. Photo: Stefan.lefnaer, 30 June 2012. commons.wikimedia.org

Asclepias syriaca L. originates from North America and is cultivated as an ornamental. It was introduced into European countries from France to Bulgaria and Russia (potentially invasive) (EPPO 2019). A. syriaca colonises a variety of communities from woodlands to cleared grasslands and marshlands. It grows in clumps or patches in meadows, fencerows, roadsides, railways, waste places, reduced-tillage fields, and other open habitats (CABI 2010). Larger populations can displace native plant and animal species, especially if the species penetrates into habitats worthy of protection. The large leaves shade the soil and thus prevent the emergence of other species (Anonymous 2014).

In 2014, Switzerland added Asclepias syriaca L. to its List of Invasive Alien Plants (EPPO 2019, Anonymous 2014).

IAS of Union concern

In 2017, Asclepias syriaca L. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2017) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Asclepias syriaca L. was first mentioned for Luxembourg by Tinant (1836: 134): “This plant, native to Syria and cultivated in our gardens, is found wild on the rocks around Bellevue [Ed.: Petrusse valley in Luxembourg City], where it is quite common […]. It also grows in the park of Clervaux.” 1 Klein (1897: 54-55) mentions the Common milkweed to be grown as an ornamental plant.

Lambinon & Verloove (2012: 534) mention this melliferous species as very rare in the territory of the flora; recently in expansion in Belgium.

The databases contain no observations of Asclepias syriaca L. for Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B0 (3+2+2+2) = Alert List. First assessed 22 November 2019 by Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,19 = (Overall Invasion score 0,52 x Overall Impact score 0,37) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,52Invasion
0,37Impact
0,19Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2014. Asclepias syriaca in: Info Flora – Das nationale Daten- und Informationszentrum der Schweizer Flora. URL: https://www.infoflora.ch/de/assets/content/documents/neophyten/inva_ascl_syr_d.pdf
  • Anonymous, 2017. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2017/1263 of 12 July 2017 updating the list of invasive alien species of Union concern established by Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 182: 37-39 (13.7.2017).
  • CABI, 2010. Asclepias syriaca L. [original text by Claire Teeling]. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global Database: Asclepias syriaca L. URL: https://gd.eppo.int [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • Klein, E. J., 1897. Die Flora der Heimat (sowie die hauptsächlichsten bei uns kultivierten fremden Pflanzenarten biologisch betrachtet. Eine Anleitung zur selbständigen Beobachtung der Lebens- und Anpassungserscheinungen in der Pflanzenwelt). 552 S., Buchdruckerei Justin Schroell, Diekirch.
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Asclepias syriaca in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-02-28]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Tinant, F. A., 1836. Flore luxembourgeoise, ou, Description des plantes phanérogames, recueillies et observées dans le grand-duché de Luxembourg, classées d’après le système sexuel de Linnée. 512 p. Luxembourg, J. P. Kuborn.

 Page content last updated on 2021-07-14. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-27.

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John

English American skunk-cabbage, swamp lantern Status LU: absent. 1st record: n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Amerikanesch Heckepëppchen Status Eur.: established. 1st record: UK 1901. 1 IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français Lysichiton américain RA: ISEIA: B0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,14
Deutsch Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American skunk-cabbage Wikipedia - Français - Lysichiton américain Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia - Nederlands - Moeraslantaarn | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Lysichiton americanus | CABI
Nederlands Moeraslantaarn Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Lysichiton americanus 38261Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John grows in the transition zone of terrestrial, semi-aquatic and aquatic habitats like swamps, fens, wet meadows, marshy and alluvial woodlands, along streams, riverbanks, lakesides and ponds. It has no specific site condition requirements except the presence of saturated organic soils. It is often found in protected semi-natural habitats. Lysichiton reproduces almost exclusively by seeds, which may be dispersed downstream along waterways. However, spread by natural means is not frequent and rather limited. L. americanus has become established locally in swamp forests and associated wetlands in the EPPO region (resulting most of the time from plantation in the site). After some years, its huge leaves build a dense layer excluding light from native species which are usually not adapted to extreme darkness. It can displace and cause local extinction of rare species of mosses and vascular plants (Carex echinata, Viola palustris, and orchids). (Branquart et al. 2010).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John has not yet been observed in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (2+3+3+2) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,14 = (Overall Invasion score 0,34 x Overall Impact score 0,40) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,34Invasion
0,40Impact
0,14Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • Branquart, E., I. Stiers, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • CABI, 2021. Lysichiton americanus. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2021-03-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Lysichiton americanus in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2021-03-04. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven

English Creeping water primrose Status LU: absent. 1st record: n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Krauchend Waasserprimmel Status Eur.: established. 1st record: FR 1830s. 1 IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français Jussie rampante RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,44
Deutsch Kriechendes Heusenkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Creeping water primrose Wikipedia - Français - Jussie rampante Wikipedia - Nederlands - Kleine Waterteunisbloem | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_peploides | CABI
Nederlands Kleine waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Brief descritpion

Ludwigia peploides 3Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven is an amphibious plant living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Both clonal and sexual reproductions contribute to plant spread across watersheds. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying (Branquart et al. 2013).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven has not yet been observed in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,44 = (Overall Invasion score 0,59 x Overall Impact score 0,75) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,59Invasion
0,75Impact
0,44Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2013. Harmonia database: Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • CABI, 2021. Ludwigia peploides. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2021-03-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Ludwigia peploides in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2021-03-04. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet

English Water primrose Status LU: absent. 1st record: n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Groussbléieg Waasserprimmel Status Eur.: established. 1st record: FR 1830s. 1 IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français Jussie à grandes fleurs, Grande J. RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,28
Deutsch Großblütiges Heusenkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Français - Jussie à grandes fleurs Wikipedia - Deutsch - Großblütige Heusenkraut Wikipedia - Nederlands - Waterteunisbloem | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_grandiflora | CABI
Nederlands Waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Ludwigia grandiflora kz3Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet is an amphibious species living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Invasive spread across watersheds is almost exclusively clonal and brought about by the dispersal of vegetative propagules by waterflow. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying (Branquart et al. 2013).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet has not yet been observed in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,28 = (Overall Invasion score 0,46 x Overall Impact score 0,62) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,46Invasion
0,62Impact
0,28Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • Branquart, E., I. Stiers, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2013. Harmonia database: Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • CABI, 2021. Ludwigia grandiflora. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2021-03-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Ludwigia grandiflorain MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2021-03-04. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901)

Synonyms: Ochlerotatus japonicus, Hulecoeteomyia japonica

English East Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Status LU: established. 1st record: 2018.
Lëtzebuergesch Japanesch Hecke-Moustique Status Eur.: established.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C2. Harmonia+: 0,34.
Deutsch Asiatische Buschmücke Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - East Asian bush mosquito Wikipedia - Français Wikipedia - Deutsch - Asiatische Buschmücke Wikipedia - Nederlands | Wikispecies: n/a (2020)
Nederlands Aziatische bosmug Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

CDC 7886 Ochlerotatus japonicusAedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901), commonly known as the Asian bush mosquito or the Asian rock pool mosquito, has four known subspecies Ae. j. japonicus, Ae. j. shintienensis, Ae. j. yaeyamensis, and Ae. j. amamiensus. They are competent arbovirus vectors known to transmit the West Nile virus as well as Japanese and St. Louis encephalitis. They are listed as an invasive species by the Global Invasive Species Database.

Adults live in forested areas and are day biters, but are apparently reluctant to bite humans. In the laboratory, they feed on chicks and mice but not on reptiles or amphibians. Larvae occur in a wide variety of natural and artificial water retainers such as tree holes and rock holes, usually preferring shaded places and water rich in organic matter. They are found from early spring to early autumn in their native habitat of Central Japan. They overwinter as eggs in cooler regions and larvae in warmer regions. Adults have a distinctive bronze-colored, lyre-shaped pattern on the scutum, and larvae have a linear arrangement of branched frontal setae and a strongly spiculated anal saddle (Wikipedia contributors 2020).

Advice for the population

Please refer to the Internet page https://mosquitoes.lu/dealing-with-mosquitoes/ for detailed information in 5 languages (Lëtzebuergesch Français Deutsch Portugues English) on how to deal with mosquitoes near your home.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-05-24.

3 female imagoes of Aedes japonicus (Syn.: Hulecoeteomyia japonica) were captured on 4th July 2018 in Stolzembourg, Oesling. Field exploration on 1st and 2nd August showed the East Asian bush mosquito is also present in Bivels, Vianden, Wahlhausen and Gemünd (D). Further field studies in August and October 2018 revealed the presence of a large population of Aedes japonicus, detected in 16 sites distributed over 12 localities, 12 municipalities, 7 cantons and 3 districts. The colonised area can be estimated to date to cover at least 550 km², located in the east of the Grand Duchy, from the valley of the Our in the north to Ernster in the south, and as far as Kautenbach and Ettelbruck in the west. The mosquito was not detected in neighbouring Belgium (Clairefontaine and Ouren) but it was in Germany, where it has been present for several years in Rhineland-Palatinate and from where it has certainly migrated to the Grand Duchy. We also detected it in the French border town of Contz-les-Bains, which suggests that the mosquito is probably present, although not detected to date, in the region bordering the Moselle, from Manternach to the French border (Schaffner 2018).

Distribution of the mosquito Aedes japonicus known as of 10 October 2018, for Luxembourg and the neighbouring regions of Germany, Belgium and France. Purple: proven presence; Purple with star: data from the German surveillance network; Green: undetected presence (Schaffner 2018).

The species is established in the Province of Namur (Belgium), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse (Germany), and in Bas-Rhin, Haut-Rhin, Vosges (France).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C2 (3+2+2+1), assessment updated on 13 August 2018 by M. Pfeiffenschneider & C. Ries. Former assessment under it’s synonym Hulecoeteomyia japonica: C0 (2+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,34 = (Overall Invasion score 0,67 x Overall Impact score 0,50) (Schaffner & Ries 2019: 178).

0,67Invasion
0,50Impact
0,34Risk

Initial importations and spread in Europe

Source: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/disease-vectors/facts/mosquito-factsheets/aedes-japonicus [accessed July 31 2018]

Aedes japonicus was first reported in Europe in 2000 when it was detected in Normandy (Orne) in northern France, where it was later eliminated. It was then reported in 2002 in Belgium at a tyre depot and presence as adults and larvae was confirmed in 2007 and 2008. It was most likely introduced through the trade of tyres and the population was thought to be established at the company site but does not appear to be spreading. It was detected in Switzerland in 2008 following reports of a biting nuisance and subsequent surveys revealed a 1,400 km colonised zone including an area in Germany. This was the first detection of invasive mosquitoes spreading in central Europe. No obvious route of introduction was identified in this study but it is suspected that the species has been present here for some time. Adult Ae. japonicus were then found in southern Germany during 2011, following intensified surveillance. This resulted in surveillance expanding to cover the entire federal state of Baden-Württemberg where a reduction in the colonised areas compared to 2010 was reported (possibly due to a dry spring during 2011). However, a large, newly infested area was also reported from the city of Stuttgart to the Swabian Mountains. Entomological surveys carried out during 2012 in North Rhine-Westphalia also revealed the presence of an established population in the west of the country. Aedes japonicus were then reported further north in southern Lower Saxony and northeastern North Rhine-Westphalia during spring 2013. It was detected in 2012 and 2013 in Lelystad, the Netherlands.

Source: The map shows the current known distribution of Aedes japonicus in Europe at at ‘regional’ administrative level (NUTS3), as of September 2020 (ECDC & EFSA, 2020).

It is suggested that Aedes japonicus may expand beyond its current geographical distribution but there is still a lack of information available on this invasive mosquito species.

Worldwide distribution

References

  • ECDC & EFSA, 2020. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and European Food Safety Authority. Mosquito maps [internet]. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/disease-vectors/surveillance-and-disease-data/mosquito-maps
  • Ganser, J., 2020. Tigermücke im Anflug. Exotische Stechfliegen finden vermehrt den Weg nach Luxemburg. Das muss aber kein Grund zur Panik sein. Luxemburger Wort online 2020-09-21. URL: https://www.wort.lu/de/lokales/tigermuecke-im-anflug-5f68bdc4de135b9236d06c07
  • GBIF, 2019. Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-04-08]
  • Ministère de la Santé, 2018. Première apparition du moustique japonais « Aedes japonicus » au Luxembourg. Communiqué de presse du 1er août 2018. [PDF 40 KB]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [accessed 2020-04-08]
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Schaffner, F., 2018. Le moustique Aedes japonicus au Luxembourg : État des connaissances au 10 octobre 2018. Rapport de mission pour la Direction de la santé, grand-duché de Luxembourg. 14 p. [PDF 1.4 MB]
  • Schaffner, F. & C. Ries, 2019. First evidence and distribution of the invasive alien mosquito Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 121: 169-183. [PDF 8,94 MB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2020. ‘Aedes japonicus’ in Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aedes_japonicus&oldid=940631744 [accessed 2020.04.08]

 Page content last updated on 2020-11-08. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-04.