Orconectes immunis (Hagen, 1870)

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English Papershell crayfish Status LU: absent.
Lëtzebuergesch Kalikokriibs Status Eur.: established.
Français Ecrevisse calicot RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Kalikokrebs Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Orconectes immunis  Wikipedia - Français - Ecrevisse calicot Wikipedia - Deutsch - Kalikokrebs Nederlands - Calicotrivierkreeft | Wikispecies: n/a (2020)
Nederlands Calicotrivierkreeft Back to the list of invertebrates

Report the species

Report Orconectes immunis to the National Museum of Natural History.

Brief description

Orconectes immunis Kalikokrebs calico crayfishOrconectes immunis is a species of crayfish in the family Cambaridae. It is native to North America and it is an introduced species in Europe. O. immunis is only found in slow-flowing bodies of water, such as streams, ponds, marshes and roadside ditches, in contrast to O. virilis which also lives in rivers with moderate flow. It can survive in areas with large fluctuations in the amount of available water, by burrowing into the ground when the surface waters recede. Orconectes immunis has been popular in the aquarium trade in Germany, and is kept as a pet both in aquaria and garden ponds. The first recorded escape was a single individual in a small canal in the Rhine valley of Baden-Württemberg in 1997. It appears to be outcompeting another invasive species, Orconectes limosus, which has been present in the area for five decades (Wikipedia contributors 2018).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Orconectes immunis (Hagen, 1870) has not yet been documented in Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2020). The species is spreading in several neighbouring countries as France and Germany (cf. Albes 2019).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+3+2) = Alert List (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution


  • Albes, J., 2019. Invasoren mit Scheren – Der amerikanische Kalikokrebs vermehrt sich rasant im Rheintal – Für die hiesige Tierwelt eine Katastrophe. Journal 2019-12-11: 18. [PDF 168 KB]
  • GBIF 2020. Orconectes immunis (Hagen, 1870) in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-03-13]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Orconectes immunis in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [accessed 2020-03-13]
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2018. ‘Orconectes immunis’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 14 October 2018, 18:38 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Orconectes_immunis&oldid=864041343> [accessed 2020-03-13]

 Page content last updated on 2020-05-04.