Publication of a guide for the identification and management of invasive alien plant species on construction sites

The Luxembourg Nature and Forestry Administration has published a guide on the identification and management of invasive alien plant species on construction sites. The 88-page guide is written in French and can be useful to other actors such as biological stations, municipalities and other state administrations that are active in other activities such as nature sites, the development and maintenance of green spaces and along roads.

The guide can be ordered or downloaded from the following web page: https://environnement.public.lu/fr/publications/conserv_nature/plantes_exotiques_envahissantes.html

Citation: Pfeiffenschneider M. et al., 2019. Guide d’identification et de gestion d’espèces de plantes exotiques envahissantes sur les chantiers. 88 pp. Administration de la nature et des forêts (éd.).

 Last updated on Friday, June 28, 2019.

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John

English American skunk-cabbage, swamp lantern ISEIA: B0 – Alert List. IAS of EU concern (2016)
Lëtzebuergesch n/a EASIN | CABI
Français Lysichiton américain Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American skunk-cabbage Wikipedia - Français - Lysichiton américain Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia - Nederlands - Moeraslantaarn
Deutsch Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Lysichiton americanus
Nederlands Moeraslantaarn Back to the list of neophytes

Importance and distribution in Luxembourg

The species has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

Lysichiton americanus grows in the transition zone of terrestrial, semi-aquatic and aquatic habitats like swamps, fens, wet meadows, marshy and alluvial woodlands, along streams, riverbanks, lakesides and ponds. It has no specific site condition requirements except the presence of saturated organic soils. It is often found in protected semi-natural habitats. Lysichiton reproduces almost exclusively by seeds, which may be dispersed downstream along waterways. However, spread by natural means is not frequent and rather limited. L. americanus has become established locally in swamp forests and associated wetlands in the EPPO region (resulting most of the time from plantation in the site). After some years, its huge leaves build a dense layer excluding light from native species which are usually not adapted to extreme darkness. It can displace and cause local extinction of rare species of mosses and vascular plants (Carex echinata,Viola palustris, and orchids). (Source: http://ias.biodiversity.be/species/show/12).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: A0 (2+3+3+2) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Bibliography

n/a

 Last updated on Thursday, January 24, 2019.

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven

English Creeping water primrose ISEIA: A0 – Alert List. IAS of EU concern (2016)
Lëtzebuergesch n/a EASIN | CABI
Français Jussie rampante Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Creeping water primrose Wikipedia - Français - Jussie rampante Wikipedia - Nederlands - Kleine Waterteunisbloem
Deutsch Kriechendes Heusenkraut Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_peploides
Nederlands Kleine waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Importance and distribution in Luxembourg

The species has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

L. peploides is an amphibious plant living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Both clonal and sexual reproductions contribute to plant spread across watersheds. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in Western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most of native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying. (Source: http://ias.biodiversity.be/species/show/12).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Bibliography

n/a

 Last updated on Thursday, January 24, 2019.

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet

English Water primrose ISEIA: A0 – Alert List. IAS of EU concern (2016)
Lëtzebuergesch n/a EASIN | CABI
Français Jussie à grandes fleurs, Grande J. Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Français - Jussie à grandes fleurs Wikipedia - Deutsch - Großblütige Heusenkraut Wikipedia - Nederlands - Waterteunisbloem
Deutsch Großblütiges Heusenkraut Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_grandiflora
Nederlands Waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Importance and distribution in Luxembourg

The species has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

L. grandiflora is an amphibious species living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Invasive spread across watersheds is almost exclusively clonal and brought about by the dispersal of vegetative propagules by waterflow. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in Western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most of native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying. (Source: http://ias.biodiversity.be/species/show/11).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Bibliography

n/a

 Last updated on Thursday, January 24, 2019.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.

English Five-leaved Virginia creeper ISEIA: B1 – Watch List
Lëtzebuergesch Fënnefbliedrege Wëlle Wäin EASIN
Français Vigne-vierge à cinq folioles Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Five-leaved Virginia creeper Wikipedia - Français - Vigne-vierge à cinq folioles Wikipedia - Deutsch - Selbstkletternde Jungfernrebe Wikipedia - Nederlands - Vijfbladige wingerd
Deutsch Selbstkletternde Jungfernrebe Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Nederlands Vijfbladige wingerd Back to the list of neophytes

General note on Parthenocissus spp.

Originally observed in man-made habitats, these popular garden plants can be found increasingly often in natural habitats like coastal dunes, riparian habitats and wood margins (Parthenocissus inserta) or rock outcrops (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). They usually thrive on nutrient-rich soils. Seeds are dispersed over long distances by birds. With its dense growth, the plant may cover, outcompete and kill native vegetation (Branquart et al. 2011).

Importance and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux & iNaturalist, 2019-10-19.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. was first documented by Léopold Reichling (1921-2009) on 1 June 1958 at the Stromberg in the municipality of Schengen (MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 12 records of the five-leaved Virginia creeper are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL & iNaturalist 2019).

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch has long been confused with Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. originating from North America. However, the latter is distinguished by its more branched twists (5-8 twists per twist, compared to gen. 3-5 in P. inserta), with branches provided at their end with a differentiated adhesive disc (simply swollen at their end in P. inserta) and by its leaflets with more obtuse and generally less deep teeth. A hybrid between the two species is also reported. It remains to be seen whether P. quinquefolia and the above-mentioned hybrid have been found in a subspontaneous state in the territory of Flora (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: B1 (3+3+2+2), reassessed on 10 July 2018 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Originally assessed together with Parthenocissus inserta as Parthenocissus spp. C1 (1+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2011. Harmonia database: Parthenocissus spp. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-14]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • MNHNL & iNaturalist, 2019. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux and iNaturalist. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Last updated on Wednesday, October 16, 2019.

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch

English False Virginia creeper ISEIA: B1 – Watch List
Lëtzebuergesch Gewéinleche Wëlle Wäin EASIN
Français Vigne vierge commune Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - False Virginia creeper Wikipedia - Français - Vigne vierge commune Wikipedia - Deutsch - Wilder Wein Wikipedia - Nederlands - Valse wingerd
Deutsch Gewöhnliche Jungfernrebe Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Parthenocissus inserta
Nederlands Valse wingerd Back to the list of neophytes

General note on Parthenocissus spp.

Originally observed in man-made habitats, these popular garden plants can be found increasingly often in natural habitats like coastal dunes, riparian habitats and wood margins (Parthenocissus inserta) or rock outcrops (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). They usually thrive on nutrient-rich soils. Seeds are dispersed over long distances by birds. With its dense growth, the plant may cover, outcompete and kill native vegetation (Branquart et al. 2011).

Importance and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux & iNaturalist, 2019-10-19.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the MNHNL was collected in July 1883 by Edmond Joseph Klein (1866-1942) from a cultivated false Virginia creeper in Wiltz (Specimen № 16636, MNHNL 2000-). The next scientific record that we know of was made by Jean-Jacques Kariger in 1957 on the Wurthsberg in the Clausen district of Luxembourg City (Kariger 1959: 74; MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 4 records of the false Virginia creeper are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL & iNaturalist 2019).

This South and Western North American species is melliferous and cultivated to cover walls or facades. Quite frequently subspontaneous or naturalized locally: old walls, hedges, ruderalized forest edges, wastelands, stream banks, slag heaps, railway ballast (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch has long been confused with Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. originating from North America. However, the latter is distinguished by its more branched twists (5-8 twists per twist, compared to gen. 3-5 in P. inserta), with branches provided at their end with a differentiated adhesive disc (simply swollen at their end in P. inserta) and by its leaflets with more obtuse and generally less deep teeth. A hybrid between the two species is also reported. It remains to be seen whether P. quinquefolia and the above-mentioned hybrid have been found in a subspontaneous state in the territory of Flora (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: B1 (3+3+2+2), reassessed on 10 July 2018 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Originally assessed together with Parthenocissus quinquefolia as Parthenocissus spp. C1 (1+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2011. Harmonia database: Parthenocissus spp. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-14]
  • Kariger, J.-J., 1959. Florule et capitale: Le Wurthsberg de Clausen et quelques hauteurs analogues. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 62: 59-81. [PDF 1302 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • MNHNL & iNaturalist, 2019. Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux and iNaturalist. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Last updated on Wednesday, October 16, 2019.

Spot the cherry laurel – A citizen science survey with children

The children magazine Panewippchen, edited for the members of the Panda-Club of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History, has published an interview with Dr Christian Ries, curator of the Department of Ecology:

  • Schaltz, Michèle, 2017. Fuerschung am ‘Natur Musée’: Ekologie. Panewippchen 4: 6-11. [PDF 2.2 MB]

The last page of the article suggests the young readers to participate to a citizen science survey concerning the recent spread into the wild of the cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.), a common garden plant in Luxembourg, mostly planted to build hedges. Fruits can be dispersed over long distances by birds.

Interested children are asked to look into the forests in their neighbourhood, the evergreen cherry laurel being very easy to spot in winter time, when trees and shrubs rejected their leaves.

The children are asked to send the following basic information to :

  1. How many cherry laurel individuals have been spotted?
  2. Where were they spotted (using GPS of portable devices)
  3. Observers name, age, address and email address.

 Last updated on Monday, January 8, 2018.

Ceratophyllum submersum L., a new species for Luxembourg

MNHNL22119

Herbarium specimen MNHNL22119 at the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History.

Ceratophyllum submersum L., commonly known as the soft hornwort, is a submerged, free-floating aquatic plant.

A very dense submerged population of the soft hornwort has been discovered in a pond near Sanem on 21st June 2015 by German botanists Jörg Zoldan and Annette Steinbach-Zoldan during a survey for the nature conservation organization SICONA-Ouest. The pond had been artificially created in 2010.

In November 2015 specimens from this population have been deposited in the herbarium of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History. 1

Ceratophyllum submersum, Flora Batava Vol. 19, 1893. Wikimedia Commons.

Ceratophyllum submersum, Flora Batava Vol. 19, 1893. Wikimedia Commons.

 Last updated on Monday, February 27, 2017.

Notes:

  1. Herbarium number MNHNL22119.

Unnoticed invasion of Highways by halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb.

The annual halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (syn.: A. heterosperma Bunge) was first spotted in Hellange on 14 October 2007. By 2015, eight years later, it had colonized the median strip of huge parts of the Luxembourg highway network.

Read more in the post about Atriplex micrantha.

Atriplex_mi_Ries_small

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg, together with Senecio inaequidens. Curator Dr Christian Ries taking samples for the Museum herbarium. Photo: Dr Jim Meisch, 08.10.2015.

 Last updated on Wednesday, February 24, 2016.

Atriplex micrantha Ledeb.

English n/a ISEIA: C2
Lëtzebuergesch Grot Mëll EASIN
Français Arroche hétérosperme Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Deutsch - Verschiedensamige_Melde
Deutsch Verschiedensamige Melde Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Atriplex micrantha
Nederlands Grijze melde Back to the list of neophytes

Importance and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux & iNaturalist, 2019-10-19.

The annual halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (syn.: A. heterosperma Bunge), once known as a very rare weed, began to naturalize in the flora territory in 2003. It spread rapidly along motorways, entering this territory apparently from the east and southwest (Germany and French Lorraine) (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 168).

The species was first spotted in Hellange (Municipality of Frisange) on 14 October 2007, in a roundabout at a construction site on controlled-access highway E29 (MNHNL, 2000-). 1

Since this single observation, the species managed unnoticed to invade the Luxembourg highway network, until a large population was spotted in summer 2015 in Potaschberg on the highway A1 between Trier and Luxembourg (Krippel & Colling 2016: 30). 2

A control in the field in autumn 2015 revealed the invasive plant grows in the median strip of the A1 almost from the German border until Luxembourg city in huge very dense populations 3, which confirms the Belgian point of view that “the species is still insufficiently known and widely neglected”. 4 Atriplex micrantha, which was dominant in the middle part of the median strip, occurred together with the following species: Senecio inaequidens (dominant on the borders of the median strip), Mercurialis annua, Plantago intermedia, Prunus spinosa and Rosa rugosa.

On 13 October 2015 the species has been spotted along the Jersey barrier of highway A6 between the Belgian border and Mamer 5.

Since then, the species managed to travel north along the highway A7 until Colmar-Berg and the national highway B7 until Ettelbruck (Krippel et al. 2018: 60).

Atriplex micrantha is very salt-tolerant and benefits from the extensive use of deicing salt along motorways during winter. It probably arrived in Luxembourg via its large secondary distribution area in Germany, namely the A1 from Trier.

Atriplex micrantha Herbier MNHNL 2007

Specimen of the MNHNL Herbarium (Acc Nr. MNHNL 2011/47)

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway, together with Senecio inaequidens. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg, together with Senecio inaequidens. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Risk assessment

ISEIA Protocol: C2 (3+1+1+1). First assessed 16 February 2017 by Yves Krippel and Christian Ries.

Bibliography

  • Krippel, Y. & G. Colling, 2016. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2014-2015). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 118 : 27-51.
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-02]
  • MNHNL & iNaturalist, 2019. Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux and iNaturalist. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-02]

Bibliography concerning neighbouring regions

  • Georges, N., 2006. Note sur deux nouvelles espèces de Chenopodiaceae adventices en Lorraine : Bassia scoparia (L.) Voss et Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. Willemetia 48: 1-4. [PDF]
  • Verloove, F., 2006. Atriplex micrantha, een nieuwe neofyt langs belangrijke verkeerswegen in België. Dumortiera 88: 15-20.
  • Weicherding, F.-J., 2007. Zur Verbreitung und Soziologie der adventiven Melden Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (Verschiedensamige Melde), Atriplex sagittata Borkh. (Glanz-Melde) und Atriplex oblongifolia Waldst. et Kit. (Langblättrige Melde) (Chenopodiaceae) im Saarland und in angrenzenden Gebieten. Abh. Delattinia 33: 117-139.

http://euromed.luomus.fi/euromed_map.php?taxon=544848&size=medium

 Last updated on Wednesday, October 2, 2019.

Notes:

  1. Atriplex micrantha was first spotted in Luxembourg on on 14 October 2007 by German Horticulturist Franz-Josef Weicherding, St. Ingbert/Saar. He offered a specimen to the herbarium of the MNHNL (Acc Nr. MNHNL 2011/47).
  2. Atriplex micrantha was spotted on 15 August 2015 by botanist Yves Krippel, scientific cooperator of the National Museum of Natural History.
  3. Control was done on 8 October 2015 by Dr Christian Ries and Dr Jim Meisch, curators at the National Museum of Natural History (WGS 84 6.41204, 49.68373). This “field trip” on the middle strip of an highway had to be coordinated with the highways unit of the department of civil engineering.
  4. Cf. Atriplex micrantha in the Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium
  5. The plants were smaller (± 40-50 cm) than on the A1 (± 150 cm). Observation by Dr Christian Ries while driving car in the mentioned direction.