Asclepias syriaca L.

This species is under work

English Common milkweed Status LU: n/a. 1st record: n/a
Lëtzebuergesch Gewéinlech Seidplanz Status EU: established. IAS of Union concern (2017)
Français Asclépiade commune RA: ISEIA: B0, Alert list. Harmonia+: 0.26
Deutsch Gewöhnliche Seidenpflanze Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Wikipedia - Français Wikipedia - Deutsch Wikipedia - Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Gewoon zijdeplant Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Asclepias syriaca sl 2

Asclepias syriaca on ballast near Karnabrunn, district Korneuburg, Lower Austria. Photo: Stefan.lefnaer, 30 June 2012. commons.wikimedia.org

Asclepias syriaca L. originates from North America and is cultivated as an ornamental. It was introduced into European countries from France to Bulgaria and Russia (potentially invasive) (EPPO 2019). A. syriaca colonises a variety of communities from woodlands to cleared grasslands and marshlands. It grows in clumps or patches in meadows, fencerows, roadsides, railways, waste places, reduced-tillage fields, and other open habitats (CABI 2010). Larger populations can displace native plant and animal species, especially if the species penetrates into habitats worthy of protection. The large leaves shade the soil and thus prevent the emergence of other species (Anonymous 2014).

In 2014, Switzerland added Asclepias syriaca L. to its List of Invasive Alien Plants (EPPO 2019, Anonymous 2014).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Asclepias syriaca L. has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B0 (3+2+2+2) = Alert List. First assessed 22 November 2019 by Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,26 = (Overall Invasion score 0,52 x Overall Impact score 0,50) (Ries et al. in prep.).

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2014. Asclepias syriaca in: Info Flora – Das nationale Daten- und Informationszentrum der Schweizer Flora. URL: https://www.infoflora.ch/de/assets/content/documents/neophyten/inva_ascl_syr_d.pdf
  • CABI, 2010. Asclepias syriaca L. [original text by Claire Teeling]. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global Database: Asclepias syriaca L. URL: https://gd.eppo.int [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, [in prep.]. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-27. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-27.

Publication of a guide for the identification and management of invasive alien plant species on construction sites

The Luxembourg Nature and Forestry Administration has published a guide on the identification and management of invasive alien plant species on construction sites. The 88-page guide is written in French and can be useful to other concerned parties such as biological stations, municipalities and other state administrations that are active in other activities such as nature sites, the development and maintenance of green spaces and along roads.

The guide can be ordered or downloaded from the following web page: https://environnement.public.lu/fr/publications/conserv_nature/plantes_exotiques_envahissantes.html

Citation: Pfeiffenschneider M. et al., 2019. Guide d’identification et de gestion d’espèces de plantes exotiques envahissantes sur les chantiers. 88 pp. Administration de la nature et des forêts (éd.).

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John

English American skunk-cabbage, swamp lantern Status LU: n/a. 1st record: n/a
Lëtzebuergesch Amerikanesch Heckepëppchen Status EU: established. IAS of Union concern (2016)
Français Lysichiton américain RA: ISEIA: B0 – Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,14
Deutsch Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American skunk-cabbage Wikipedia - Français - Lysichiton américain Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia - Nederlands - Moeraslantaarn | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Lysichiton americanus | CABI
Nederlands Moeraslantaarn Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John grows in the transition zone of terrestrial, semi-aquatic and aquatic habitats like swamps, fens, wet meadows, marshy and alluvial woodlands, along streams, riverbanks, lakesides and ponds. It has no specific site condition requirements except the presence of saturated organic soils. It is often found in protected semi-natural habitats. Lysichiton reproduces almost exclusively by seeds, which may be dispersed downstream along waterways. However, spread by natural means is not frequent and rather limited. L. americanus has become established locally in swamp forests and associated wetlands in the EPPO region (resulting most of the time from plantation in the site). After some years, its huge leaves build a dense layer excluding light from native species which are usually not adapted to extreme darkness. It can displace and cause local extinction of rare species of mosses and vascular plants (Carex echinata, Viola palustris, and orchids). (Branquart et al. 2010).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (2+3+3+2) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,14 = (Overall Invasion score 0,34 x Overall Impact score 0,40) (Ries et al. in prep.).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., I. Stiers, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, [in prep.]. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-21. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven

English Creeping water primrose Status LU: n/a. 1st record: n/a
Lëtzebuergesch Krauchend Waasserprimmel Status EU: established. IAS of Union concern (2016)
Français Jussie rampante RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,44
Deutsch Kriechendes Heusenkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Creeping water primrose Wikipedia - Français - Jussie rampante Wikipedia - Nederlands - Kleine Waterteunisbloem | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_peploides | CABI
Nederlands Kleine waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Brief descritpion

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven is an amphibious plant living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Both clonal and sexual reproductions contribute to plant spread across watersheds. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying (Branquart et al. 2013).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,44 = (Overall Invasion score 0,59 x Overall Impact score 0,75) (Ries et al. in prep.).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2013. Harmonia database: Ludwigia peploides (Kunth.) P.H. Raven. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, [in prep.]. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-21. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet

English Water primrose Status LU: n/a. 1st record: n/a
Lëtzebuergesch Groussbléieg Waasserprimmel Status EU: established. IAS of Union concern (2016)
Français Jussie à grandes fleurs, Grande J. RA: ISEIA: A0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,28
Deutsch Großblütiges Heusenkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Français - Jussie à grandes fleurs Wikipedia - Deutsch - Großblütige Heusenkraut Wikipedia - Nederlands - Waterteunisbloem | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ludwigia_grandiflora | CABI
Nederlands Waterteunisbloem Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet is an amphibious species living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Invasive spread across watersheds is almost exclusively clonal and brought about by the dispersal of vegetative propagules by waterflow. Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying (Branquart et al. 2013).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet has not yet been observed in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A0 (3+3+2+3) = Alert List. First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,28 = (Overall Invasion score 0,46 x Overall Impact score 0,62) (Ries et al. in prep.).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., I. Stiers, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2013. Harmonia database: Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, [in prep.]. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-21. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

First record of Amaranthus cruentus in Luxembourg

Field of Amaranthus cruentus between Ell and Lannen, 20th September 2017. Photo by Claire Wolff, SICONA.

Amaranthus cruentus L. was first observed in the wild 1 in Luxembourg, on 28th August 2018, on the border of maize fields and a pasture between Ell and Lannen in the Canton of Redange (Midwestern area of Luxembourg).

An on-site inspection on 29th August 2018 revealed that the population extends over 300m at the edge of the fields and at the roadside between the coordinates LUREF 56775 E | 93241 N and 56758 E | 93542 N. Several specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the National Museum of Natural History.

This population is probably a consequence of the cultivation of this species on an adjacent field in 2017, as the photo on the right illustrates.

Image gallery

Photos by Christian Ries, MNHNL, 29th August 2018.

Useful links

 

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.

English Five-leaved Virginia creeper ISEIA: B1 – Watch List
Lëtzebuergesch Fënnefbliedrege Wëlle Wäin EASIN
Français Vigne-vierge à cinq folioles Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Five-leaved Virginia creeper Wikipedia - Français - Vigne-vierge à cinq folioles Wikipedia - Deutsch - Selbstkletternde Jungfernrebe Wikipedia - Nederlands - Vijfbladige wingerd
Deutsch Selbstkletternde Jungfernrebe Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Nederlands Vijfbladige wingerd Back to the list of neophytes

General note on Parthenocissus spp.

Originally observed in man-made habitats, these popular garden plants can be found increasingly in natural habitats like coastal dunes, riparian habitats and wood margins (Parthenocissus inserta) or rock outcrops (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). They usually thrive on nutrient-rich soils. Seeds are dispersed over long distances by birds. With its dense growth, the plant may cover, out-compete and kill native vegetation (Branquart et al. 2011).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019-12-08.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. was first documented by Léopold Reichling (1921-2009) on 1 June 1958 at the Stromberg peak in the municipality of Schengen (MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 12 records of the five-leaved Virginia creeper are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch has long been confused with Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. originating from North America. However, the latter is distinguished by its more branched twists (5-8 twists per twist, compared to gen. 3-5 in P. inserta), with branches provided at their end with a differentiated adhesive disc (simply swollen at their end in P. inserta) and by its leaflets with more obtuse and generally less deep teeth. A hybrid between the two species is also reported. It remains to be seen whether P. quinquefolia and the above-mentioned hybrid have been found in a subspontaneous state in the wild (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: B1 (3+3+2+2), reassessed on 10 July 2018 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Originally assessed together with Parthenocissus inserta as Parthenocissus spp. C1 (1+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2011. Harmonia database: Parthenocissus spp. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-14]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-20. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch

English False Virginia creeper ISEIA: B1 – Watch List
Lëtzebuergesch Gewéinleche Wëlle Wäin EASIN
Français Vigne vierge commune Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - False Virginia creeper Wikipedia - Français - Vigne vierge commune Wikipedia - Deutsch - Wilder Wein Wikipedia - Nederlands - Valse wingerd
Deutsch Gewöhnliche Jungfernrebe Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Parthenocissus inserta
Nederlands Valse wingerd Back to the list of neophytes

General note on Parthenocissus spp.

Originally observed in man-made habitats, these popular garden plants can be found increasingly in natural habitats like coastal dunes, riparian habitats and wood margins (Parthenocissus inserta) or rock outcrops (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). They usually thrive on nutrient-rich soils. Seeds are dispersed over long distances by birds. With its dense growth, the plant may cover, out-compete and kill native vegetation (Branquart et al. 2011).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019-12-08.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the MNHNL was collected in July 1883 by Edmond Joseph Klein (1866-1942) from a cultivated false Virginia creeper in Wiltz (Specimen № 16636, MNHNL 2000-). The next scientific record that we know of was made under its synonym Parthenocissus vitacea Hitchc. by Jean-Jacques Kariger in 1957 on the Wurthsberg in the Clausen district of Luxembourg City (Kariger 1959: 74; MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 4 records of the false Virginia creeper are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

This south and western North American species is melliferous and cultivated to cover walls or facades. Quite frequently subspontaneous or naturalised locally: old walls, hedges, ruderalized forest edges, wastelands, stream banks, slag heaps, railway ballast (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch has long been confused with Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. originating from North America. However, the latter is distinguished by its more branched twists (5-8 twists per twist, compared to gen. 3-5 in P. inserta), with branches provided at their end with a differentiated adhesive disc (simply swollen at their end in P. inserta) and by its leaflets with more obtuse and generally less deep teeth. A hybrid between the two species is also reported. It remains to be seen whether P. quinquefolia and the above-mentioned hybrid have been found in a subspontaneous state in the wild (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: B1 (3+3+2+2), reassessed on 10 July 2018 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Originally assessed together with Parthenocissus quinquefolia as Parthenocissus spp. C1 (1+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2011. Harmonia database: Parthenocissus spp. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-14]
  • Kariger, J.-J., 1959. Florule et capitale: Le Wurthsberg de Clausen et quelques hauteurs analogues. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 62: 59-81. [PDF 1302 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-20. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.

Spot the cherry laurel – A citizen science survey with children

The children’s magazine Panewippchen, edited for the members of the Panda Club of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History, has published an interview with Dr Christian Ries, curator of the Department of Ecology:

  • Schaltz, Michèle, 2017. Fuerschung am ‘Natur Musée’: Ekologie. Panewippchen 4: 6-11. [PDF 2.2 MB]

The last page of the article encourages the young readers to participate in a citizen science survey concerning the recent spread into the wild of the cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.), a common garden plant in Luxembourg, mostly planted to build hedges. Fruits can be dispersed over long distances by birds.

Interested children are asked to look in the forests around their neighbourhood, the evergreen cherry laurel being very easy to spot in winter time, when trees and shrubs lose their leaves.

The children are asked to send the following basic information to :

  1. How many cherry laurel individuals have been spotted?
  2. Where were they spotted (using GPS of portable devices)
  3. Observer’s name, age, address and email address.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

Cochlearia danica L.

English Danish scurvygrass ISEIA: C1
Lëtzebuergesch Dänescht Läffelkraut EASIN
Français Cochléaire du Danemark Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Danish scurvygrass Wikipedia - Français - Wikipedia - Deutsch - Dänisches Löffelkraut Wikipedia - Nederlands - Deens lepelblad
Deutsch Dänisches Löffelkraut Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Cochlearia danica
Nederlands Deens lepelblad Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Cochlearia danica L. is a salt-tolerant (normally) coastal flowering plant which is now flourishing along roads and motorways in Europe, especially under the crash barriers in the central reservation. Its success has been attributed to its ability to survive the effects of salts distributed by gritters in winter and its small seeds being spread by the high speed of cars in the fast lane. Full of vitamin C, the Danish scurvygrass gets its name from sailors chewing it to avoid scurvy. The mauve flowers are 4-5mm in diameter (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Cochlearia danica L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019-12-08.

Cochlearia danica L. was first collected on May 5th 2011 in Luxembourg-Kirchberg by Jean-Claude Kirpach (MNHNL 2000-). 1 Since this first observation, the species has been spotted twice along the controlled-access A6 highway near Windhof and Aire de Capellen (Krippel et al. 2018: 61-62).

In a recent survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg (Ehl et al. 2019), the Danish scurvygrass was not recorded, although it was expected to be found, as it was recently recorded in Trier in Germany (Hand et al. 2016) and Arlon in Belgium (Remacle 2015).

The general spread of Cochlearia danica has been following the pattern of roads leading from the coast to the hinterland (Brandes 2009). The Danish scurvygrass, quite common on the coasts of Western Europe, is expanding inland mainly in the north and centre of the flora territory, following the massive use of snow removal salts in winter, especially along highways (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 270-271).

Risk assessment

ISEIA Protocol: C1 (1+1+1+1). First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Bibliography

  • Brandes, D., 2009. Autobahnen als Wuchsorte und Ausbreitungswege von Ruderal- und Adventivpflanzen. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften 8(2): 373-394.
  • Ehl, S., K. Mildenberger, T. Frankenberg1 & C. Ries, 2019 [accepted]. Halophytes in roadside habitats: a survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb.
  • Hand, R., H. Reichert, W. Bujnoch, U. Kottke & S. Caspari, 2016. Flora der Region Trier (1. & 2. Band). Verlag Michael Weyand GmbH, Trier, 1637 pp.
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Cochlearia danica L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-05]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Cochlearia danica L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-06]
  • Remacle, A., 2015. L’intérêt botanique des espaces verts autoroutiers : le cas de l’autoroute E411 près d’Arlon (province de Luxembourg, Belgique). Dumortiera 107: 3-21.
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. Cochlearia danica L. in Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 16 September 2019. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cochlearia_danica&oldid=916018993 [accessed 3 October 2019]

Not cited bibliography concerning our neighbouring areas

  • Cochard, P.-O., 2005. Cochlearia danica L., une halophyte adventice des autoroutes. Symbioses nouvelle série 13 : 69-74. [http://pierreo.cochard.free.fr/cv_poc/Cochard_Cochlearia.pdf]
  • Havrenne, A., 1995. Cochlearia danica, plante halophile nouvelle pour le Hainaut. Natura Mosana 48 : 68-69.
  • Mennema, J., 1986. Cochlearia danica L. op weg naar de binnenlanden van België en West-Duitsland. Dumortiera 34-35 : 139-142.
  • Olivier, J.-F., 1996. Nouvelles stations de Cochlearia danica L. près de Bruxelles. Dumortiera 66 : 1-3.
  • Remacle, A., 2015. L’intérêt botanique des espaces verts autoroutiers : le cas de l’autoroute E411 près d’Arlon (province de Luxembourg, Belgique). Dumortiera 107 : 3-21.
  • Robyns, J., 1978. Floristische mededelingen : Cochlearia danica te Ezemaal. Dumortiera 10 : 296.
  • Zwaenepoel, A., 1994. Cochlearia danica L. als bermhalofyt langs verkeerswegen in het Vlaamse binnenland. Dumortiera 55-57 : 43-49.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.