Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl

English Tall annual willowherb Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 2021., ITW: 2021.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: 1978.
Français Épilobe d’automne RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Kurzfrüchtiges Weidenröschen Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl.,  is a species of willowherb known by the common names tall willowherb, tall annual willowherb, panicled willowherb and tall fireweed. It is native to and widespread in North America, where it is a resident of varied open and woodland habitats. It has also been introduced to some areas in South America and Europe. E. brachycarpum is a tall glandular, hairy annual herb occasionally reaching two metres in height. The flower has four petals which may be so deeply notched that they look like four pairs. They are generally light purple or pink, with darker veining. The fruit is a capsule 1 to 3 centimetres long.

It grows in wasteland, disturbed areas, sunny sites, on stony ground. It is a pioneer species, in the process of establishing itself in Europe (Germany, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg,…). The distribution map from CABI as indicated here below is thus to be considered as incomplete. The plant seems to be spreading along roads and particularly railways. In its native range, it grows on dry or seasonally moist, often disturbed soil, in open woods, meadows, especially along roadsides, and riverbanks, up to an altitude of 3,300 m. (Wikipedia contributors 2022, Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl. was recorded for the first time in Luxembourg in 2021 on a worksite in the locality of GrevelsA second record of the species was made in the same year on a worksite in Eschdorf. The various populations of E. brachycarpum observed during that year have been found on fallow land that has been uncultivated for a maximum of three years and were linked to construction works around Esch-sur-Sûre (drinking water treatment plant and new SEBES pipeline) (Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Currently, a third record (in Diekirch) of the species in Luxembourg is accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2022).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Epilobium brachycarpum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Epilobium brachycarpum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilobium_brachycarpum> [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wolff, J.-P. & Y. Krippel, 2022. Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl (Onagraceae), une nouvelle espèce pour la flore du Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 124: 3-8. [PDF 5,13 MB]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Amorpha fruticosa L.

English False indigo-bush Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 1934, ITW 1934.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: .
Français Amorphe buissonnante RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Bastardindigo Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Bastaard indigostruik Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Amorpha fruticosa L. originates from North America and is cultivated as an ornamental. It was introduced in Europe from France to Russia (EPPO 2022). The fast-growing, deciduous shrub grows preferentially in wetlands, like riparian and alluvial habitats, sandy banks of ravines, coastal areas, and dunes. However, it tolerates some disturbed areas, such as plantations, orchards, meadows and urban areas. Due to its high reproductive capacity, A. fruticosa can form dense thickets that outcompete native flora, change successional patterns and reduce biodiversity. It is now generally accepted to be among the most invasive alien species in Europe. Repeated cutting and mowing can help to control populations of this species (CABI 2022). 

In 2014, Switzerland added the Fabaceae to its List of Invasive Alien Plants (EPPO 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Amorpha fruticosa L. has been recorded for the first time in Luxembourg in 1934 in Noertzange (Herbier Witry).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Amorpha fruticosa. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Amorpha fruticosa‘, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 9 August 2022, 01:26 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilobium_brachycarpum> [accessed 2022-08-22]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Pistia stratiotes L.

English Water lettuce Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2022).
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Wassersalat Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Pistia stratiotes L., is often called water cabbage, water lettuce, Nile cabbage, or shellflower. Its native distribution is uncertain but is probably pantropical; it was first discovered from the Nile near Lake Victoria in Africa.It is now present, either naturally or through human introduction, in nearly all tropical and subtropical fresh waterways and is considered an invasive species as well as a mosquito breeding habitat. It floats on the surface of the water, its roots hanging submersed beneath floating leaves.

Water lettuce is among the world’s most productive freshwater aquatic plants and is considered an invasive species. The species can be introduced to new areas by water dispersal, fragmentation, and hitchhiking on marine transportation or fishing equipment. The invasion of Pistia stratiotes in the ecosystem can lead to environmental and socio-economic ramifications to the community it serves. In waters with high nutrient content, particularly those that have been contaminated with human loading of sewage or fertilizers, water lettuce can exhibit weedy overgrowth. It may also become invasive in hydrologically altered systems such as flood control canals and reservoirs. The severe overgrowth of water lettuce can block gas exchange in the surface water, creating hypoxic conditions and eliminating or disrupting various native marine organisms. Blocking access to sunlight, large mats of water lettuce can shade native submerged plants and alter communities relying on these native plants as a source of food. The growth of these mats can also get tangled in boat propellers and create challenges for boaters or recreational fishermen. (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

IAS of Union concern

In 2022, Pistia stratiotes L. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2022) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Pistia stratiotes L. has not yet been recorded in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2022. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1203 of 12 July 2022 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 to update the list of invasive alien species of Union concern. Official Journal of the European Union L 186: 10 – 13 (13.7.2022).
  • CABI, 2010. Pistia stratiotes. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-19]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Pistia stratiotes’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pistia> [accessed 2022-08-19]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal

English Himalayan knotweed Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2022).
Français Renouée de l’Himalaya RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Himalaja-Knöterich Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal, commonly known as Himalayan knotweed is a species of flowering plant in the knotweed family. The species is native to Asia (southwestern China, Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Afghanistan) and it is planted in many places as an ornamental. It has the capacity to become an invasive species and has established itself in some parts of North America, primarily the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada, as well as in the UK and Belgium. It is an invasive weed in the mountains of Sri Lanka.

Koenigia polystachya is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing thick, hollow, erect stems easily exceeding one metre (40 inches) in length. Via its rhizomes it can form dense colonies. It may also spread asexually if sections of the stem containing rooting nodes are separated and moved to a new area; chopping the plant into small pieces does not necessarily keep it from growing. The hairy leaves are up to 20 centimetres (8 inches) long. The branching inflorescence is an array of lacy clusters of many small white flowers. Called thothnay in Sikkim and Darjeeling areas of India, the pleasantly sour-tasting edible shoots and stems are used as a vegetable or used to make piquant condiments and accompaniments for meals. (Wikipedia contributors 2021).

IAS of Union concern

In 2022, Koenigia polystachyaetaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2022) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal has not yet been recorded in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2022. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1203 of 12 July 2022 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 to update the list of invasive alien species of Union concern. Official Journal of the European Union L 186: 10 – 13 (13.7.2022).
  • CABI, 2010. Persicaria wallichii. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-19]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Koenigia polystachya’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koenigia_polystachya> [accessed 2022-08-19]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Phytolacca americana L.

English
American pokeweed
Status LU: established. 1st record: LU <1946, ITW 1980.
Lëtzebuergesch Amerikanesch Kermesbier Status Eur.: established. 1st record: Med. ~1650.[1]The species was introduced around 1650 into the Mediterranean area to be used as a dye-plant (Balogh & Juhász 2008).
Français Raisin d’Amérique, Teinturier RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Amerikanische Kermesbeere Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American pokeweed Wikipedia - Français - Raisin d'Amérique, Teinturier Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanische Kermesbeere Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Phytolacca americana | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Phytolacca americana sl25

Mature Pokeweed in a xerothermic wood in Lower Austria

Phytolacca americana L. is widely naturalised in ruderal sites and in nature-like habitats in southern Europe, extending northwards to central France. Semi-natural habitats colonised include heaths, open woodlands, clearcut areas and forest edges. In Belgium, it is commonly used as an ornamental; it is planted in gardens and public green areas but doesn’t reproduce in the wild so far. Under suitable environmental conditions, the American pokeweed forms dense populations that can outcompete native vegetation and prevent regeneration of forest species. The plant produces toxic saponins (Branquart et al. 2010).

IAS of Union concern

In 2020, Phytolacca americana L. was proposed as a candidate species to join the list of invasive alien species of Union concern.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Phytolacca americana L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-10-06.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the Museum dates back to the 19th century: it is a specimen from Siebenbürgen from the A. Georges herbarium in Gotha found in the Koltz herbarium, probably an exchange specimen (Specimen № 15712, MNHNL 2000-).

The oldest reference to Phytolacca in Luxembourg is found in the Bulletin of the Luxembourg Naturalist Society, when Eugène Beck circulates a sample of Phytolacca […], known from some of Luxembourg City’s ornamental gardens (Anonyme 1946). We assume it to be Phytolacca americana L., as Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. has not yet been observed in Luxembourg. It was first recorded in Belgium in 1960 (Verloove 2021).

The first documentation of the American pokeweed in the wild was recorded in 1980 by Pierre Becker in a fir plantation downstream of Soup in the municipality of Heffingen (Reichling 1985: 136; Obs. key: DSS00465000000CI in MNHNL 2000-).

Grown for ornamental purposes in gardens. Very rare subspontaneous or adventitious; naturalised towards the SW limit of the Flora’s territory: roadsides, waste ground, … The fruits of this species are poisonous, unlike those of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., which is also grown in gardens for ornamental purposes, but especially for its fruits used as a colouring agent (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 122).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (2+2+3+2) = Watch List. First assessed 2021-02-16 by C. Ries & Y. Krippel.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonyme, 1946. Comptes-rendus des séances de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois. Séances hebdomadaires du mois d’octobre 1946. Lundi, 24 octobre. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois 51 (2): 54.
  • Balogh L. & M. Juhász, 2008. American and Chinese pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L., Ph. esculenta van Houtte). – In: Botta-Dukát Z. & Balogh L. (eds): The most important invasive plants in Hungary. HAS IEB, Vácrátót, pp. 37–42.
  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Phytolacca americana L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2021-02-15]
  • CABI, 2019. Phytolacca americana L. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2021-02-15]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Phytolacca americana L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2021-02-15]
  • Reichling, L. 1985. Travaux de la Société. Séance du 8 mars 1982. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 85: 135-136.
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Verloove, F., 2021. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. On: Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium. Botanic Garden Meise, Belgium. At: alienplantsbelgium.be, accessed 2021-02-16.
    http://alienplantsbelgium.be/taxonomy/term/4773/descriptions

 Page content last updated on 2021-12-03. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2021-03-03.

References

References
1 The species was introduced around 1650 into the Mediterranean area to be used as a dye-plant (Balogh & Juhász 2008).

Publication of leaflets on Fallopia japonica and Impatiens glandulifera

In early spring 2020 the Department for the Environment of the Luxembourg Ministry for environment, climate and sustainable development edited leaflets in German and French about Fallopia japonica and Impatiens glandulifera, in co-operation with the National Museum of Natural History and efor-ersa ingénieurs-conseils. They can be downloaded here in PDF format (~ 4 MB each).

More information on → Japanese knotweed and → Himalayan balsam in Luxembourg.

  

 

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-06.

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.

English Crimson fountaingrass Status LU: introduced. 1st record: LU 2019, ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch Afrikanescht Lanterbotzergras Status Eur.: established. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2017).
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C1. Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Afrikanisches Lampenputzergras Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Starr 040217-0077 Pennisetum setaceum

Pennisetum setaceum on Kahoolawe Island (Hawai)

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov., commonly known as crimson fountaingrass, is a C4 perennial bunch grass that is native to open, scrubby habitats in East Africa, tropical Africa, the Middle East and SW Asia. It has been introduced to many parts of the world as an ornamental plant, and has become an invasive species in some of them. It is drought-tolerant, grows fast, reaches 3 feet in height, and has many purple, plumose flower spikes. Fountaingrass has been introduced to the Canary Islands, Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain, Australia, South Africa, Hawaii, the Western United States, California, southern Florida and New Caledonia. It thrives in warmer, drier areas and threatens many native species, with which it competes very effectively as an invasive species. It also tends to increase the risk of intense wildfires, to which it is well adapted, thus posing a further threat to certain native species (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

IAS of Union concern

In 2017, Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2017) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2022-10-06.

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was first recorded in Luxembourg in December 2019 in two public parks: two plantings (15 and 29 m2; 9 specimens) in the municipal park of Hesperange (Signoret 2020: 20) and 5 specimens in the Edouard André Municipal Park in Luxembourg City (ibidem: 24) (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C1 (3+2+2+1). First assessed 2021-02-16 by C. Ries & Y. Krippel.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assesed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2017. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2017/1263 of 12 July 2017 updating the list of invasive alien species of Union concern established by Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 182: 37-39 (13.7.2017).
  • CABI, 2010. Pennisetum setaceum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Pennisetum setaceumin MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-04]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Signoret, S., 2020. Inventaire d’espèces exotiques envahissantes dans des arboretums, jardins botaniques et parcs aménagés au Luxembourg. Étude réalisée pour l’Administration de la nature et des forêts, 57 p. [PDF 6MB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. ‘Pennisetum setaceum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pennisetum_setaceum&oldid=918152552> [accessed 2020-03-04]

 Page content last updated on 2022-04-28. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2020-03-05.

Asclepias syriaca L.

English Common milkweed Status LU: uncertain. 1st record: LU & ITW <1836.
Lëtzebuergesch Gewéinlech Seideplanz Status Eur.: established. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2017).
Français Asclépiade commune RA: ISEIA: B0, Alert List. Harmonia+: 0,19
Deutsch Gewöhnliche Seidenpflanze Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Wikipedia - Français Wikipedia - Deutsch Wikipedia - Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Gewoon zijdeplant Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Asclepias syriaca sl 2

Asclepias syriaca on ballast near Karnabrunn, district Korneuburg, Lower Austria. Photo: Stefan.lefnaer, 30 June 2012. commons.wikimedia.org

Asclepias syriaca L. originates from North America and is cultivated as an ornamental. It was introduced into European countries from France to Bulgaria and Russia (potentially invasive) (EPPO 2019). A. syriaca colonises a variety of communities from woodlands to cleared grasslands and marshlands. It grows in clumps or patches in meadows, fencerows, roadsides, railways, waste places, reduced-tillage fields, and other open habitats (CABI 2010). Larger populations can displace native plant and animal species, especially if the species penetrates into habitats worthy of protection. The large leaves shade the soil and thus prevent the emergence of other species (Anonymous 2014).

In 2014, Switzerland added Asclepias syriaca L. to its List of Invasive Alien Plants (EPPO 2019, Anonymous 2014).

IAS of Union concern

In 2017, Asclepias syriaca L. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2017) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Asclepias syriaca L. was first mentioned for Luxembourg by Tinant (1836: 134): “This plant, native to Syria and cultivated in our gardens, is found wild on the rocks around Bellevue [Ed.: Petrusse valley in Luxembourg City], where it is quite common […]. It also grows in the park of Clervaux.”[1]Original text: “Cette plante originaire de Syrie et cultivée dans nos jardins, se trouve sauvage sur les rochers aux environs de Bellevue, où elle est assez fréquente […]. Elle croît … Continue reading Klein (1897: 54-55) mentions the Common milkweed to be grown as an ornamental plant.

Lambinon & Verloove (2012: 534) mention this melliferous species as very rare in the territory of the flora; recently in expansion in Belgium.

The databases contain no observations of Asclepias syriaca L. for Luxembourg (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B0 (3+2+2+2) = Alert List. First assessed 22 November 2019 by Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,19 = (Overall Invasion score 0,52 x Overall Impact score 0,37) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,52Invasion
0,37Impact
0,19Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2014. Asclepias syriaca in: Info Flora – Das nationale Daten- und Informationszentrum der Schweizer Flora. URL: https://www.infoflora.ch/de/assets/content/documents/neophyten/inva_ascl_syr_d.pdf
  • Anonymous, 2017. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2017/1263 of 12 July 2017 updating the list of invasive alien species of Union concern established by Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 182: 37-39 (13.7.2017).
  • CABI, 2010. Asclepias syriaca L. [original text by Claire Teeling]. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global Database: Asclepias syriaca L. URL: https://gd.eppo.int [accessed 2019-11-22]
  • Klein, E. J., 1897. Die Flora der Heimat (sowie die hauptsächlichsten bei uns kultivierten fremden Pflanzenarten biologisch betrachtet. Eine Anleitung zur selbständigen Beobachtung der Lebens- und Anpassungserscheinungen in der Pflanzenwelt). 552 S., Buchdruckerei Justin Schroell, Diekirch.
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Asclepias syriaca in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-02-28]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Tinant, F. A., 1836. Flore luxembourgeoise, ou, Description des plantes phanérogames, recueillies et observées dans le grand-duché de Luxembourg, classées d’après le système sexuel de Linnée. 512 p. Luxembourg, J. P. Kuborn.

 Page content last updated on 2021-07-14. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-27.

References

References
1 Original text: “Cette plante originaire de Syrie et cultivée dans nos jardins, se trouve sauvage sur les rochers aux environs de Bellevue, où elle est assez fréquente […]. Elle croît aussi dans le parc de Clervaux.”

Publication of a guide for the identification and management of invasive alien plant species on construction sites

The Luxembourg Nature and Forestry Administration has published a guide on the identification and management of invasive alien plant species on construction sites. The 88-page guide is written in French and can be useful to other concerned parties such as biological stations, municipalities and other state administrations that are active in other activities such as nature sites, the development and maintenance of green spaces and along roads.

The guide can be ordered or downloaded from the following web page: https://environnement.public.lu/fr/publications/conserv_nature/plantes_exotiques_envahissantes.html

Citation: Pfeiffenschneider M. et al., 2019. Guide d’identification et de gestion d’espèces de plantes exotiques envahissantes sur les chantiers. 88 pp. Administration de la nature et des forêts (éd.).

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John

English American skunk-cabbage, swamp lantern Status LU: casual. 1st record: 2022
Lëtzebuergesch Amerikanesch Heckepëppchen Status Eur.: established. 1st record: UK 1901.[1]Cf. CABI 2021. IAS of EU concern (2016).
Français Lysichiton américain RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: 0,14
Deutsch Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American skunk-cabbage Wikipedia - Français - Lysichiton américain Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl Wikipedia - Nederlands - Moeraslantaarn | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Lysichiton americanus | CABI
Nederlands Moeraslantaarn Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Lysichiton americanus 38261Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John grows in the transition zone of terrestrial, semi-aquatic and aquatic habitats like swamps, fens, wet meadows, marshy and alluvial woodlands, along streams, riverbanks, lakesides and ponds. It has no specific site condition requirements except the presence of saturated organic soils. It is often found in protected semi-natural habitats. Lysichiton reproduces almost exclusively by seeds, which may be dispersed downstream along waterways. However, spread by natural means is not frequent and rather limited. L. americanus has become established locally in swamp forests and associated wetlands in the EPPO region (resulting most of the time from plantation in the site). After some years, its huge leaves build a dense layer excluding light from native species which are usually not adapted to extreme darkness. It can displace and cause local extinction of rare species of mosses and vascular plants (Carex echinata, Viola palustris, and orchids). (Branquart et al. 2010).

IAS of Union concern

In 2016, Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2016) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent it’s unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John was first documented by Christiane Wolff via iNaturalist on 2022-05-31 and was confirmed by Maximilien Oly on 2022-06-02 in the Mamer valley close to Kopstal. Three individuals have been differenciated next to a tributary of the Mamer.

L. americanus in the Mamer valley on 2022-06-02 – plant in the background (EFOR-ERSA, M. Oly)

L. americanus next to a tributary of the Mamer (EFOR-ERSA, M. Oly)

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (2+3+3+2) = Alert List. First assessed 2019-01-24 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,14 = (Overall Invasion score 0,34 x Overall Impact score 0,40) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,34Invasion
0,40Impact
0,14Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189: 4-5.
  • Branquart, E., I. Stiers, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-11-21]
  • CABI, 2021. Lysichiton americanus. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2021-03-04]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Lysichiton americanus in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2022-06-09. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

References

References
1 Cf. CABI 2021.