Plantago coronopus L.

English Buck’s-horn plantain Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 2014, ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn.
Français Plantain corne-de-cerf RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Krähenfuß-Wegerich Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Deutsch Français Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Hertshoornweegbree Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Plantago coronopus L. is an annual or perennial herbaceous plant that reaches heights of 5 to 25 centimetres, flowering from June to September. It mainly grows on sandy or gravelly soils close to the sea, but also on salt-treated roadsides. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa but it can be found elsewhere, including the United States, Australia, and New Zealand as an introduced species (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Plantago coronopus L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Plantago coronopus L. is a rather new species for the Luxembourg flora, observed for the first time in 2014 in Kirchberg, in the flowerbeds along avenue Kennedy, between the roundabout and the shopping centre (Krippel et al 2018). During an inventory of halophytes in roadside habitats in 2017 and 2018,  the presence of Plantago coronopus was documented for the first time along national roads. A relatively high number of individuals was found on the verges of two motorways: A1 (2017, Potaschbierg) and A6 (2018, Croix de Gasperich). Further findings were located near Wasserbillig (2018, Park and Ride parking “Mesenich” and Diekirch (2018, parking rue de l’industrie) (Ehl et al 2019).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2012. Plantago coronopus. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2023-01-31]
  • Ehl, S., K. Mildenberger, T. Frankenberg & C. Ries, 2019. Halophytes in roadside habitats: a survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 37-51. [PDF 24.03 MB]
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB].
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Plantago coronopus’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 June 2022, 20:20 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_coronopus> [accessed 2023-01-23]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-31.

Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl.

English Leatherleaf viburnum Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn.
Français Viorne à feuilles ridées RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Runzelblättriger Schneeball Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Deutsch Français Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Sneeuwbal Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl. is a vigorous, coarsely textured evergreen shrub has an upright habit and 20 cm long, lustrous, deeply veined oval leaves with dark blue-green surfaces and pale green undersides. Plants grow 3.0 – 4.6 m tall and wide. The plant is an evergreen shrub or small tree with a suckering habit. Viburnum rhytidophyllum grows naturally in forests and shrubs at altitudes between 700 and 2.400 meters only in some Chinese provinces. It is commonly grown as an ornamental plant for its evergreen foliage and tolerance of deep shade. In countries where the species has been introduced as an ornemental plant, it seems to be spreading more and more near settlements in recent years. It potentially can displace native species and also causes health issues (Wikipedia contributors 2022, Gigon 2012).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

A specimen of Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl. from Rumelange can be found in the herbarium of Joseph Witry (25 May 1936). The herbarium of the National museum of natural history contains another cultivated specimen from Esch/Alzette (6 June 1959). As of January 2023, most of the occurences documented in the database Recorder-Lux are found in urban areas, in private gardens or parks. But V. rhytidophyllum has also been found in the wild: next to the A.7 in the Grunewald area, in a vineyard near Wellenstein as well as in forest areas close to Manternach and west of Echternach.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Viburnum rhytidophyllum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2023-01-25]
  • Gigon, A. (2012): Ersatz-Pflanzenarten für die unerwünschten gebietsfremden Arten (invasive Neophyten) der Schwarzen und der Beobachtungsliste der Schweiz. 2012 (infoflora.ch [PDF]).
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Viburnum rhytidophyllum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 28 November 2022, 10:26 UTC, <https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runzelblättriger_Schneeball> [accessed 2023-01-30]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-31.

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud.

English Chinese empress tree Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn.
Français Paulownia impérial RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Blauglockenbaum Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Anna-paulownaboom Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud., common names princess tree, empress tree, or foxglove-tree, is a deciduous hardwood tree in the family Paulowniaceae, native to central and western China. It is an extremely fast-growing tree with seeds that disperse readily. In the US, the species is a showy, aggressive ornamental. It is also grown in plantations for timber production, but has tended to escape and invade, growing rapidly in disturbed areas including habitats for rare plants. It seeds profusely and resprouts from roots and stumps forming monocultures, and is proving to be a problem weed in eastern USA. It continues to be promoted, however, in North America and elsewhere, and it is possible that it could prove invasive in Europe where it continues to be introduced and planted. (CABI 2019, Wikipedia contributors 2022). The tree has been given the status of a potentially invasive species in Germany and is on the grey list of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) and is thus under observation (www.neobiota.de).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.)Steud. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. was introduced to Luxembourg in 1842 (Welter et al. 2008). 18 occurences have been documented in Luxembourg between 2008 and 2022.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Paulownia tomentosa. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-23]
  • Bundesamt für Naturschutz BfN, Invasivitätsbewertung gebietsfremder Gefäßpflanzen. URL: https://neobiota.bfn.de/invasivitaetsbewertung/gefaesspflanzen.html [accessed 2023-01-20]
  • Welter A., Turk J., Trossen J., 2008. – Les arbres introduits au Luxembourg. Inventaire des essences arborescentes non indigènes de pleine terre présentes sur le territoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Ferrantia 53, Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, 111 p
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Paulownia tomentosa’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 18 July 2022, 18:50 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paulownia_tomentosa> [accessed 2022-08-23]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-20.

Impatiens capensis Meerb.

English Orange jewelweed Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn.
Français Impatiente du Cap RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch n/a Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies
Nederlands Oranje springzaad Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Impatiens capensis Meerb., common names orange jewelweed, common jewelweed, spotted jewelweed, spotted touch-me-not or orange balsam is an annual plant which is native to North America. It is common in bottomland soils, ditches, and along creeks. Jewelweed is an herbaceous plant that grows 1 to 1,5 meters tall and blooms from late spring to early fall. The flowers are orange (sometimes blood orange or rarely yellow) with a three-lobed corolla. It often branches extensively. The round stems are smooth and succulent and semi-translucent, with swollen or darkened nodes on some plants. The leaves are alternate and simple and have teeth on the margins. Impatiens capensis was transported in the 19th and 20th centuries to England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Finland, and potentially other areas of northern and central Europe. This jewelweed species is quite similar to Impatiens noli-tangere, an impatiens species native to Europe and Asia (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Impatiens capensis Meerb. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

The first documented observation of the species in Luxembourg was made by Carlo Braunert in October 2021 on the banks of the Moselle river in Machtum – Deisermillen.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

 

Bibliography

  • Krippel, Y. & T. Helminger, 2022. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2020-2021). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 124: 191-222. [PDF 2,7 MB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Impatiens capensis’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 3 September 2022, 1:50 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impatiens_capensis> [accessed 2022-09-13]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-20.

Spergularia marina (L.) Besser

English Salt sandspurry Status LU: established. 1st record: LU & ITW 2019.
Lëtzebuergesch Mieres-Spierkelchen Status Eur.: native.
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C2. Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Salz-Schuppenmiere Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Wikipedia - Français | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Atriplex micrantha | CABI
Nederlands Zilte schijnspurrie Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Spergularia marina, also called Spergularia salina, is a species of flowering plant in the family Caryophyllaceae. It is known as salt sandspurry or lesser sea-spurrey. S. marina is a sprawling annual or sometimes perennial with stems up to 35 cm long. Like other sea-spurrey species, its flowers have white to pink petals, with sepals usually longer than the petals, at 2.5–4 mm. Plants are salt-tolerant, being found by the sea and in saline areas inland as well as in areas along roadsides affected by de-icing salts (Wikipedia contributors 2022)..

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Spergularia marina (L.) Besser in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Spergularia marina (L.) Besser was first documented in Luxembourg in 2019, near Garnich (Krippel et al. 2020), Findel and Hoscheid (MNHNL 2000-). Selective investigations have shown that S. marina is well represented in Luxembourg. Even if the lesser sea-spurrey was not recorded by Ehl et al. (2019) during the survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg – although known near Arlon in Belgium (Remacle 2015) –, this probably overlooked species must have been present in Luxembourg long before 2019. The sub-cosmopolite S. marina – usually found by the sea and in saline inland areas –, with a salinity index of 9 after Ellenberg (2001), is in expansion in the territory of the ‘Nouvelle Flore’ (Lambinon & Verloove 2015) and adjacent regions in Germany (Hand et al. 2016). In 2021 and 2022 many new locations were found in Luxembourg and Spergularia marina thus can be considered as naturalised in the Grand Duchy, mostly on surfaces affected by de-icing salts along roadsides, where it often grows together with Puccinellia distans, another halophyte. 32 observations of the species have been documented in the Recorder-Lux database between 2019 and 2022.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C2 (3+1+1+1). First assessed 16 February 2017 by Yves Krippel and Christian Ries.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2022. Spergularia marina. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: <https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/117280> [accessed 2022-11-14].
  • Ehl, S., K. Mildenberger, T. Frankenberg & C. Ries, 2019. Halophytes in roadside habitats: a survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 37-51.
  • Ellenberg, H., H. E. Weber, R. Düll, V. Wirth & W. Werner, 2001. Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Scripta Geobotanica XVIII. Goltze-Verlag, Göttingen, 262 pp.
  • Hand, R., H. Reichert, W. Bujnoch, U. Kottke, & S. Caspari, 2016. Flora der Region Trier. Band 1 & 2, Verlag Michael Weyand, Trier, 1.634 pp.
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2020. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2018-2019). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 122: 29-55.
  • Lambinon, J. & F. Verloove (collab. L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten & H. Vannerom), 2015. Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions voisines. (Ptéridophytes et Spermatophytes), 6e éd., 2e tirage, avec corrections. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise, CXXXIX + 1195 pp.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Portail de données du Musée national d’histoire naturelle. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://data.mnhn.lu [accédé le 01.04.2022].
  • Remacle, A., 2015. L’intérêt botanique des espaces verts autoroutiers: le cas de l’autoroute E411 près d’Arlon (province de Luxembourg, Belgique). Dumortiera 107: 3-21.
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Spergularia marina‘, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 17 April 2021, 21:41 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spergularia_marina> [accessed 2022-09-15]

 

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-20. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-13.

Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl

English Tall annual willowherb Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 2021., ITW: 2021.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: 1978.
Français Épilobe d’automne RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Kurzfrüchtiges Weidenröschen Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl.,  is a species of willowherb known by the common names tall willowherb, tall annual willowherb, panicled willowherb and tall fireweed. It is native to and widespread in North America, where it is a resident of varied open and woodland habitats. It has also been introduced to some areas in South America and Europe. E. brachycarpum is a tall glandular, hairy annual herb occasionally reaching two metres in height. The flower has four petals which may be so deeply notched that they look like four pairs. They are generally light purple or pink, with darker veining. The fruit is a capsule 1 to 3 centimetres long.

It grows in wasteland, disturbed areas, sunny sites, on stony ground. It is a pioneer species, in the process of establishing itself in Europe (Germany, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg,…). The distribution map from CABI as indicated here below is thus to be considered as incomplete. The plant seems to be spreading along roads and particularly railways. In its native range, it grows on dry or seasonally moist, often disturbed soil, in open woods, meadows, especially along roadsides, and riverbanks, up to an altitude of 3,300 m. (Wikipedia contributors 2022, Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl. was recorded for the first time in Luxembourg in 2021 on a worksite in the locality of GrevelsA second record of the species was made in the same year on a worksite in Eschdorf.

The various populations of E. brachycarpum observed during that year have been found on fallow land that has been uncultivated for a maximum of three years and were linked to construction works around Esch-sur-Sûre (drinking water treatment plant and new SEBES pipeline) (Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Epilobium brachycarpum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Epilobium brachycarpum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilobium_brachycarpum> [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wolff, J.-P. & Y. Krippel, 2022. Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl (Onagraceae), une nouvelle espèce pour la flore du Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 124: 3-8. [PDF 5,13 MB]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-23. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Amorpha fruticosa L.

English False indigo-bush Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 1934, ITW 1934.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: .
Français Amorphe buissonnante RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Bastardindigo Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Bastaard indigostruik Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Amorpha fruticosa L. originates from North America and is cultivated as an ornamental. It was introduced in Europe from France to Russia (EPPO 2022). The fast-growing, deciduous shrub grows preferentially in wetlands, like riparian and alluvial habitats, sandy banks of ravines, coastal areas, and dunes. However, it tolerates some disturbed areas, such as plantations, orchards, meadows and urban areas. Due to its high reproductive capacity, A. fruticosa can form dense thickets that outcompete native flora, change successional patterns and reduce biodiversity. It is now generally accepted to be among the most invasive alien species in Europe. Repeated cutting and mowing can help to control populations of this species (CABI 2022). 

In 2014, Switzerland added the Fabaceae to its List of Invasive Alien Plants (EPPO 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Amorpha fruticosa L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Amorpha fruticosa L. has been recorded for the first time in Luxembourg in 1934 in Noertzange (Herbier Witry).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Amorpha fruticosa. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Amorpha fruticosa‘, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 9 August 2022, 01:26 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilobium_brachycarpum> [accessed 2022-08-22]

 Page content last updated on 2022-11-15. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Pistia stratiotes L.

English Water lettuce Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2022).
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Wassersalat Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Pistia stratiotes L., is often called water cabbage, water lettuce, Nile cabbage, or shellflower. Its native distribution is uncertain but is probably pantropical; it was first discovered from the Nile near Lake Victoria in Africa.It is now present, either naturally or through human introduction, in nearly all tropical and subtropical fresh waterways and is considered an invasive species as well as a mosquito breeding habitat. It floats on the surface of the water, its roots hanging submersed beneath floating leaves.

Water lettuce is among the world’s most productive freshwater aquatic plants and is considered an invasive species. The species can be introduced to new areas by water dispersal, fragmentation, and hitchhiking on marine transportation or fishing equipment. The invasion of Pistia stratiotes in the ecosystem can lead to environmental and socio-economic ramifications to the community it serves. In waters with high nutrient content, particularly those that have been contaminated with human loading of sewage or fertilizers, water lettuce can exhibit weedy overgrowth. It may also become invasive in hydrologically altered systems such as flood control canals and reservoirs. The severe overgrowth of water lettuce can block gas exchange in the surface water, creating hypoxic conditions and eliminating or disrupting various native marine organisms. Blocking access to sunlight, large mats of water lettuce can shade native submerged plants and alter communities relying on these native plants as a source of food. The growth of these mats can also get tangled in boat propellers and create challenges for boaters or recreational fishermen. (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

IAS of Union concern

In 2022, Pistia stratiotes L. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2022) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Pistia stratiotes L. has not yet been recorded in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2022. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1203 of 12 July 2022 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 to update the list of invasive alien species of Union concern. Official Journal of the European Union L 186: 10 – 13 (13.7.2022).
  • CABI, 2010. Pistia stratiotes. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-19]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Pistia stratiotes’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pistia> [accessed 2022-08-19]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal

English Himalayan knotweed Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn. IAS of EU concern (2022).
Français Renouée de l’Himalaya RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Himalaja-Knöterich Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal, commonly known as Himalayan knotweed is a species of flowering plant in the knotweed family. The species is native to Asia (southwestern China, Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Afghanistan) and it is planted in many places as an ornamental. It has the capacity to become an invasive species and has established itself in some parts of North America, primarily the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada, as well as in the UK and Belgium. It is an invasive weed in the mountains of Sri Lanka.

Koenigia polystachya is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing thick, hollow, erect stems easily exceeding one metre (40 inches) in length. Via its rhizomes it can form dense colonies. It may also spread asexually if sections of the stem containing rooting nodes are separated and moved to a new area; chopping the plant into small pieces does not necessarily keep it from growing. The hairy leaves are up to 20 centimetres (8 inches) long. The branching inflorescence is an array of lacy clusters of many small white flowers. Called thothnay in Sikkim and Darjeeling areas of India, the pleasantly sour-tasting edible shoots and stems are used as a vegetable or used to make piquant condiments and accompaniments for meals. (Wikipedia contributors 2021).

IAS of Union concern

In 2022, Koenigia polystachyaetaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2022) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal has not yet been recorded in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2022. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1203 of 12 July 2022 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 to update the list of invasive alien species of Union concern. Official Journal of the European Union L 186: 10 – 13 (13.7.2022).
  • CABI, 2010. Persicaria wallichii. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-19]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Koenigia polystachya’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koenigia_polystachya> [accessed 2022-08-19]

 Page content last updated on 2022-09-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Phytolacca americana L.

English
American pokeweed
Status LU: established. 1st record: LU <1946, ITW 1980.
Lëtzebuergesch Amerikanesch Kermesbier Status Eur.: established. 1st record: Med. ~1650.[1]The species was introduced around 1650 into the Mediterranean area to be used as a dye-plant (Balogh & Juhász 2008).
Français Raisin d’Amérique, Teinturier RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Amerikanische Kermesbeere Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - American pokeweed Wikipedia - Français - Raisin d'Amérique, Teinturier Wikipedia - Deutsch - Amerikanische Kermesbeere Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Phytolacca americana | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Phytolacca americana sl25

Mature Pokeweed in a xerothermic wood in Lower Austria

Phytolacca americana L. is widely naturalised in ruderal sites and in nature-like habitats in southern Europe, extending northwards to central France. Semi-natural habitats colonised include heaths, open woodlands, clearcut areas and forest edges. In Belgium, it is commonly used as an ornamental; it is planted in gardens and public green areas but doesn’t reproduce in the wild so far. Under suitable environmental conditions, the American pokeweed forms dense populations that can outcompete native vegetation and prevent regeneration of forest species. The plant produces toxic saponins (Branquart et al. 2010).

IAS of Union concern

In 2020, Phytolacca americana L. was proposed as a candidate species to join the list of invasive alien species of Union concern.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Phytolacca americana L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the Museum dates back to the 19th century: it is a specimen from Siebenbürgen from the A. Georges herbarium in Gotha found in the Koltz herbarium, probably an exchange specimen (Specimen № 15712, MNHNL 2000-).

The oldest reference to Phytolacca in Luxembourg is found in the Bulletin of the Luxembourg Naturalist Society, when Eugène Beck circulates a sample of Phytolacca […], known from some of Luxembourg City’s ornamental gardens (Anonyme 1946). We assume it to be Phytolacca americana L., as Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. has not yet been observed in Luxembourg. It was first recorded in Belgium in 1960 (Verloove 2021).

The first documentation of the American pokeweed in the wild was recorded in 1980 by Pierre Becker in a fir plantation downstream of Soup in the municipality of Heffingen (Reichling 1985: 136; Obs. key: DSS00465000000CI in MNHNL 2000-).

Grown for ornamental purposes in gardens. Very rare subspontaneous or adventitious; naturalised towards the SW limit of the Flora’s territory: roadsides, waste ground, … The fruits of this species are poisonous, unlike those of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., which is also grown in gardens for ornamental purposes, but especially for its fruits used as a colouring agent (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 122).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (2+2+3+2) = Watch List. First assessed 2021-02-16 by C. Ries & Y. Krippel.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonyme, 1946. Comptes-rendus des séances de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois. Séances hebdomadaires du mois d’octobre 1946. Lundi, 24 octobre. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois 51 (2): 54.
  • Balogh L. & M. Juhász, 2008. American and Chinese pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L., Ph. esculenta van Houtte). – In: Botta-Dukát Z. & Balogh L. (eds): The most important invasive plants in Hungary. HAS IEB, Vácrátót, pp. 37–42.
  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Phytolacca americana L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2021-02-15]
  • CABI, 2019. Phytolacca americana L. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2021-02-15]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Phytolacca americana L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2021-02-15]
  • Reichling, L. 1985. Travaux de la Société. Séance du 8 mars 1982. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 85: 135-136.
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 123: 115-127. [PDF 241 KB]
  • Verloove, F., 2021. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. On: Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium. Botanic Garden Meise, Belgium. At: alienplantsbelgium.be, accessed 2021-02-16.
    http://alienplantsbelgium.be/taxonomy/term/4773/descriptions

 Page content last updated on 2021-12-03. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2021-03-03.

References

References
1 The species was introduced around 1650 into the Mediterranean area to be used as a dye-plant (Balogh & Juhász 2008).