Spot the cherry laurel – A citizen science survey with children

The children’s magazine Panewippchen, edited for the members of the Panda Club of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History, has published an interview with Dr Christian Ries, curator of the Department of Ecology:

  • Schaltz, Michèle, 2017. Fuerschung am ‘Natur Musée’: Ekologie. Panewippchen 4: 6-11. [PDF 2.2 MB]

The last page of the article encourages the young readers to participate in a citizen science survey concerning the recent spread into the wild of the cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.), a common garden plant in Luxembourg, mostly planted to build hedges. Fruits can be dispersed over long distances by birds.

Interested children are asked to look in the forests around their neighbourhood, the evergreen cherry laurel being very easy to spot in winter time, when trees and shrubs lose their leaves.

The children are asked to send the following basic information to :

  1. How many cherry laurel individuals have been spotted?
  2. Where were they spotted (using GPS of portable devices)
  3. Observer’s name, age, address and email address.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

Cochlearia danica L.

English Danish scurvygrass Status LU: established. 1st record: 2011.
Lëtzebuergesch Dänescht Läffelkraut Status EU: established.
Français Cochléaire du Danemark RA: ISEIA: C1. Harmonia+: 0,02
Deutsch Dänisches Löffelkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Danish scurvygrass Wikipedia - Français - Wikipedia - Deutsch - Dänisches Löffelkraut Wikipedia - Nederlands - Deens lepelblad | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Cochlearia danica
Nederlands Deens lepelblad Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Cochlearia danica L. is native to coastal habitats in the following countries in Europe: Belgium, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Finland, Netherlands, Ireland, Germany, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain and Sweden (Fekete et al. 2018: 27). This salt-tolerant coastal flowering plant is now flourishing along roads and motorways in Europe, especially under the crash barriers in the central reservation. Its success has been attributed to its ability to survive the effects of salts distributed by gritters in winter and its small seeds being spread by the high speed of cars in the fast lane. Literature data indicate a rapid spread of this species along European roads, of 62–65 km/year (Fekete et al. 2018: 28). Full of vitamin C, the Danish scurvygrass gets its name from sailors chewing it to avoid scurvy. The mauve flowers are 4-5mm in diameter (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Cochlearia danica L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

Cochlearia danica L. was first collected on May 5th 2011 in Luxembourg-Kirchberg by Jean-Claude Kirpach (MNHNL 2000-). 1 Since this first observation, the species has been spotted twice along the controlled-access A6 highway near Windhof and Aire de Capellen (Krippel et al. 2018: 61-62). The Danish scurvygrass continues to expand eastward along this highway (Krippel et al. 2020).

In a recent survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg (Ehl et al. 2019), the Danish scurvygrass was not recorded, although it was expected to be found, as it was recently recorded in Trier in Germany (Hand et al. 2016) and Arlon in Belgium (Remacle 2015).

On April 11, 2018 its presence was confirmed also along the A1 motorway to Germany, more than 100,000 plants especially along the central berm, but also along the lateral strips, over several km with interruptions (Krippel et al. 2020).

The general spread of Cochlearia danica has been following the pattern of roads leading from the coast to the hinterland (Brandes 2009). The Danish scurvygrass, quite common on the coasts of Western Europe, is expanding inland mainly in the north and centre of the flora territory, following the massive use of snow removal salts in winter, especially along highways (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 270-271).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C1 (1+1+1+1). First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,02 = (Overall Invasion score 0,42 x Overall Impact score 0,07) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,42Invasion
0,07Impact
0,02Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Brandes, D., 2009. Autobahnen als Wuchsorte und Ausbreitungswege von Ruderal- und Adventivpflanzen. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften 8(2): 373-394.
  • Ehl, S., K. Mildenberger, T. Frankenberg1 & C. Ries, 2019 [accepted]. Halophytes in roadside habitats: a survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb.
  • Fekete, R., A. Mesterházy, O. Valkó & V. A. Molnár, 2018. A hitchhiker from the beach: the spread of the maritime halophyte Cochlearia danica along salted continental roads. Preslia 90: 23–37. DOI: 10.23855/preslia.2018.023
  • GBIF 2020. Cochlearia danica L. in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-02-28.
  • Hand, R., H. Reichert, W. Bujnoch, U. Kottke & S. Caspari, 2016. Flora der Region Trier (1. & 2. Band). Verlag Michael Weyand GmbH, Trier, 1637 pp.
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB]
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2020. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2018-2019). Bulletin Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122 : 29-55. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Cochlearia danica L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-05]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Cochlearia danica L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-06]
  • Remacle, A., 2015. L’intérêt botanique des espaces verts autoroutiers : le cas de l’autoroute E411 près d’Arlon (province de Luxembourg, Belgique). Dumortiera 107: 3-21.
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. Cochlearia danica L. in Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 16 September 2019. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cochlearia_danica&oldid=916018993 [accessed 3 October 2019]

Not cited bibliography concerning our neighbouring areas

  • Cochard, P.-O., 2005. Cochlearia danica L., une halophyte adventice des autoroutes. Symbioses nouvelle série 13 : 69-74. [http://pierreo.cochard.free.fr/cv_poc/Cochard_Cochlearia.pdf]
  • Havrenne, A., 1995. Cochlearia danica, plante halophile nouvelle pour le Hainaut. Natura Mosana 48 : 68-69.
  • Mennema, J., 1986. Cochlearia danica L. op weg naar de binnenlanden van België en West-Duitsland. Dumortiera 34-35 : 139-142.
  • Olivier, J.-F., 1996. Nouvelles stations de Cochlearia danica L. près de Bruxelles. Dumortiera 66 : 1-3.
  • Remacle, A., 2015. L’intérêt botanique des espaces verts autoroutiers : le cas de l’autoroute E411 près d’Arlon (province de Luxembourg, Belgique). Dumortiera 107 : 3-21.
  • Robyns, J., 1978. Floristische mededelingen : Cochlearia danica te Ezemaal. Dumortiera 10 : 296.
  • Zwaenepoel, A., 1994. Cochlearia danica L. als bermhalofyt langs verkeerswegen in het Vlaamse binnenland. Dumortiera 55-57 : 43-49.

 Page content last updated on 2020-08-20. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Publication of a leaflet on Ambrosia artemisiifolia

In autumn 2016 the Department for the Environment of the Luxembourg Ministry of sustainable development and infrastructures edited a leaflet in German and French about Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in co-operation with the National Museum of Natural History and efor-ersa ingénieurs-conseils. It can be downloaded here in PDF format (4 MB each).

More information on the Common Ragweed in Luxembourg can be found in a dedicated article on this website.

flyer-cover-de   flyer-cover-fr

 Page content last updated on 2020-03-30. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Ceratophyllum submersum L., a new species for Luxembourg

MNHNL22119

Herbarium specimen MNHNL22119 at the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History.

Ceratophyllum submersum L., commonly known as the soft hornwort, is a submerged, free-floating aquatic plant.

A very dense submerged population of the soft hornwort was discovered in a pond near Sanem on 21st June 2015 by German botanists Jörg Zoldan and Annette Steinbach-Zoldan during a survey for the nature conservation organisation SICONA-Ouest. The pond had been artificially created in 2010.

In November 2015 specimens from this population were deposited in the herbarium of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History. 1

Ceratophyllum submersum, Flora Batava Vol. 19, 1893. Wikimedia Commons.

Ceratophyllum submersum, Flora Batava Vol. 19, 1893. Wikimedia Commons.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Unnoticed invasion of highways by halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb.

The annual halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (syn.: A. heterosperma Bunge) was first spotted in Hellange on 14 October 2007. By 2015, eight years later, it had colonised the median strip of huge parts of the Luxembourg highway network.

Read more in the post about Atriplex micrantha.

Atriplex_mi_Ries_small

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg, together with Senecio inaequidens. Curator Dr Christian Ries taking samples for the Museum herbarium. Photo: Dr Jim Meisch, 08.10.2015.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Atriplex micrantha Ledeb.

English n/a Status LU: established. 1st record: 2007
Lëtzebuergesch Grot Mëll Status EU: established. 1st record: 1906
Français Arroche hétérosperme RA: ISEIA: C2. Harmonia+: 0,09
Deutsch Verschiedensamige Melde Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Deutsch - Verschiedensamige_Melde | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Atriplex micrantha | CABI
Nederlands Grijze melde Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

In its native Central Asia, Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. grows in steppes on saline soil, on the shores of water, or in the steppe and semi-desert zone. The species was introduced into large parts of Europe through trade and traffic. It was probably unintentionally introduced to Central Europe from Russia with grain supplies. Its first finds date from 1906 in Alsace (Rhine port). From there, it has spread out strongly along the waterways and traffic routes in recent decades (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

The annual halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (syn.: A. heterosperma Bunge), once known as a very rare weed, began to naturalize in the flora territory in 2003. It spread rapidly along motorways, entering this territory apparently from the east and southwest (Germany and French Lorraine) (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 168).

The species was first spotted in Hellange (Municipality of Frisange) on 14 October 2007, in a roundabout at a construction site on controlled-access highway E29 (MNHNL, 2000-). 1

Since this single observation, the species managed to invade the Luxembourg highway network unnoticed, until a large population was spotted in summer 2015 in Potaschberg on the A1 highway between Trier and Luxembourg (Krippel & Colling 2016: 30). 2

A field inspection in autumn 2015 revealed the invasive plant grows in the median strip of the A1 almost from the German border until Luxembourg city in huge very dense populations 3, which confirms the Belgian point of view that “the species is still insufficiently known and widely neglected”. 4 Atriplex micrantha, which was dominant in the middle part of the median strip, occurred together with the following species: Senecio inaequidens (dominant on the borders of the median strip), Mercurialis annua, Plantago intermedia, Prunus spinosa and Rosa rugosa.

On 13 October 2015 the species was spotted along the Jersey barrier of highway A6 between the Belgian border and Mamer 5.

Since then the species managed to travel north along the A7 highway until Colmar-Berg and the B7 national highway until Ettelbruck (Krippel et al. 2018: 60). Since then, the expansion of the species is ongoing along these highways (Krippel et. al 2020: 33).

Atriplex micrantha is very salt-tolerant and benefits from the extensive use of de-icing salt along motorways during winter. It probably arrived in Luxembourg via its large secondary distribution area in Germany, namely the A1 from Trier. It is present in our neighbouring regions in Belgium (Verloove 2006), Lorraine (Georges 2006) and Saarland (Weicherding 2007).

Atriplex micrantha Herbier MNHNL 2007

Specimen of the MNHNL Herbarium (Acc Nr. MNHNL 2011/47)

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway, together with Senecio inaequidens. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg, together with Senecio inaequidens. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C2 (3+1+1+1). First assessed 16 February 2017 by Yves Krippel and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,09 = (Overall Invasion score 0,36 x Overall Impact score 0,25) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,36Invasion
0,25Impact
0,09Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Georges, N., 2006. Note sur deux nouvelles espèces de Chenopodiaceae adventices en Lorraine : Bassia scoparia (L.) Voss et Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. Willemetia 48: 1-4. [PDF]
  • Krippel, Y. & G. Colling, 2016. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2014-2015). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 118 : 27-51.
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB]
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2020. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2018-2019). Bulletin Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122 : 29-55. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-02]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-02]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Verloove, F., 2006. Atriplex micrantha, een nieuwe neofyt langs belangrijke verkeerswegen in België. Dumortiera 88: 15-20.
  • Weicherding, F.-J., 2007. Zur Verbreitung und Soziologie der adventiven Melden Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (Verschiedensamige Melde), Atriplex sagittata Borkh. (Glanz-Melde) und Atriplex oblongifolia Waldst. et Kit. (Langblättrige Melde) (Chenopodiaceae) im Saarland und in angrenzenden Gebieten. Abh. Delattinia 33: 117-139.
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. Seite „Verschiedensamige Melde“ in Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie. Bearbeitungsstand: 1. Mai 2019, 23:11 UTC. URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verschiedensamige_Melde&oldid=188124273 [accessed 23 October 2019]

http://euromed.luomus.fi/euromed_map.php?taxon=544848&size=medium

 Page content last updated on 2020-08-20. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-13.

Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq

English Billard’s bridewort Status LU: established. 1st record: 2011.
Lëtzebuergesch Billard-Kluddertrausch Status EU: established.
Français Spirée de billard RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: 0,00.
Deutsch Billards Spierstrauch Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Français - Spirée de billard | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Spiraea × billardii
Nederlands Billardspirea Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Spierstrauch ZwieselSpiraea ×billardii Hérincq is a sterile horticultural hybrid between Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea douglasii Hook. It only reproduces clonally. It grows mainly in ruderal areas and in riparian habitats. Plant habitat preferences are poorly known so far.

S. billardii is a fast-growing rhizomatous species, propagating clonally. As for other Spiraea species, it may easily form dense monospecific thickets smothering native vegetation. It is not known, however, if it has the capacity to inhibit plant successions like S. alba (Branquart et al. 2010).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

The first documented record of Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq was reported by Xavier Mestdagh on 27th June 2011, north of Consthum, municipality of Parc Hosingen (MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 5 records of Billard’s bridewort are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

This horticultural species is often grown for ornamental purposes in parks and gardens. Subspontaneous or naturalised: old hedges, roadsides, embankments, wastelands (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 326).

This Spiraea is by far the most widespread in the wild. However, the identity of the plant remains debatable: some authors distinguish Spiraea ×billardii (very pale pink corolla; narrowly conical inflorescence) and Spiraea ×Silverside Silverside (Spiraea douglasii × salicifolia) (bright pink corolla; subcylindrical inflorescence; leaf blade more regularly toothed, almost to the base), which would be much more common. However, the recognition of these two taxa seems difficult and therefore S. billardii is sometimes treated in a broad sense as a hybridogenic species that is more or less variable (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 326).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (2+2+3+2) = Watch List, reassessed on 24 January 2019 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Original assessment: B0 (2+2+3+2) = Alert List (Ries et al. 2013: 19).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,00 = (Overall Invasion score 0,00 x Overall Impact score 0,43) (Ries et al. 2020).

Overall risk score 0,00 = (Overall Invasion score 0,00 x Overall Impact score 0,43) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,00Invasion
0,43Impact
0,00Risk

Worldwide distribution

No worldwide distribution map available at CABI or GBIF (2020-03-04).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-15]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-21.

Solidago gigantea L.

English Tall goldenrod Status LU: established. 1st record: 1887.
Lëtzebuergesch Riseg Goldrutt Status EU: established.
Français Verge d’or géante RA: ISEIA: A2, Black List. Harmonia+: 0,26.
Deutsch Riesen-Goldrute Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Tall goldenrod Wikipedia - Français - Verge d'or géante Wikipedia - Deutsch - Riesen-Goldrute Wikipedia - Nederlands - Late guldenroede | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Solidago gigantea | CABI
Nederlands Late guldenroede Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Solidago gigantea (subsp. serotina) sl20Solidago gigantea L. can grow in a wide range of soil conditions but is not shade-tolerant. The plant is found in many disturbed and nitrogen-rich sites such as ruderal areas, fallow lands, abandoned fields, river banks, etc. and also colonises humid grasslands. It can build up dense and long-lasting populations and easily outcompete native plants, including tree seedlings. Competitive ability is favoured by allelopathic interactions. Once established, the plant may remain dominant for a long period of time and often prevents natural colonisation by woody species (Branquart et al. 2010).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Solidago gigantea L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the MNHNL was collected under its synonym Solidago serotina Aiton on 8 September 1887 by Jean Feltgen (1833-1904) in a garden (“jardin Bosseler”) in Mersch (Specimen № 15601, MNHNL 2000-). The next record is a herbarium specimen collected by Jos Witry on 15 July 1937 in gardens in Rumelange (Specimen № 50850, MNHNL 2000-).

The first documented record in the wild was reported on 22 September 1960 by Léopold Reichling (1921-2009) in several locations of the Grund district in Luxembourg City (Bock, Stierchen, Breedewee) (MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 78 records of tall goldenrod are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

This melliferous species native to North America is naturalised in Europe: fairly common to fairly rare, present in waterfronts, forest edges, wastelands, wastelands; often in large stands (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 703).

This species includes populations in North America with variable chromosome numbers. Naturalised plants in Europe have generally been reported to Solidago gigantea subsp. serotina (O. Kuntze) McNeill, still known to be tetraploid. The question remains, however, whether Solidago gigantea subsp. gigantea, diploid, also exists in Europe, and especially whether the two taxa are morphologically identifiable. The problem remains to be studied in the wild (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 703).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A2 (3+2+3+3) = Black List (Ries et al. 2013: 19).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,20 = (Overall Invasion score 0,63 x Overall Impact score 0,42) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,63Invasion
0,42Impact
0,20Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Solidago gigantea L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-15]
  • CABI, 2019. Solidago gigantea. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-04]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Solidago gigantea L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Solidago gigantea L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-21.

Solidago canadensis L.

English Canada goldenrod Status LU: established. 1st record: <1872.
Lëtzebuergesch Kanadesch Goldrutt Status EU: established.
Français Verge d’or du Canada RA: ISEIA: A2, Black List. Harmonia+: 0,39.
Deutsch Kanadische Goldrute Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Canada goldenrod Wikipedia - Français - Verge d'or du Canada Wikipedia - Deutsch - Kanadische Goldrute Wikipedia - Nederlands - Canadese guldenroede | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Solidago canadensis | CABI
Nederlands Canadese guldenroede Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Solidago canadense, Step & Watson 1896 v2 pl 127, cleanIn its native range, the Canada goldenrod is found mainly on forest edges and roadsides, in abandoned fields and other unmanaged areas which it colonises rapidly after abandonment. Where it has been introduced, it occupies the same habitats as in its native range but also occurs in dry meadows of high conservation value and on wetland fringes. S. canadensis is a pioneer and light-demanding species that occurs over a wide range of soil fertility and texture conditions. It can eliminate almost all other plant species; competitive ability is favoured by allelopathic interactions. Once established, the plant may remain dominant for a long period of time and often prevents natural colonisation by woody species (Branquart et al. 2011).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Solidago canadensis L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

The oldest reference to the species dates from 1872 and states that the species is cultivated for garden decoration, and that it often becomes naturalised in the vicinity of homes and on cemeteries (Fischer 1872: 82). Koltz (1873: 128) lists the species as “cultivated and sometimes subspontaneous near homes and waterways”. Koltz (1874: 30) states that it also becomes naturalised in the vicinity of watercourses. Krombach (1875: 343) states that the species is cultivated and occurs subspontaneously very rarely (RR) in the vicinity of houses. According to Lambinon & Verloove (2012: 703), this naturalised and melliferous species can be found quite rarely (AR-R) in waterfront, forest edges, vacant lots and wastelands.

The first scientific record that we know of was made by François Léon Lefort (1917-1975) on 17th August 1949 in the Clausen district of Luxembourg City, in neglected gardens and beside paths at the site of the former Mansfeld park (Specimen № 26916, MNHNL 2000-). 174 observations are accessible via the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A2 (3+2+3+3) = Black List (Ries et al. 2013: 19).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,39 = (Overall Invasion score 0,71 x Overall Impact score 0,55) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,71Invasion
0,55Impact
0,39Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum, F. Verloove, 2011. Harmonia database: Solidago canadensis L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-03]
  • CABI, 2014. Solidago canadensis. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-04]
  • Fischer, E., 1872. Les plantes subspontanées et naturalisées de la flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Publications de l’Institut royal grand-ducal de Luxembourg, section des sciences naturelles et mathématiques XII: 1-115. Imprimerie V. Buck, Luxembourg.
  • Koltz, J.-P.-J., 1873. Prodrome de la flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Première partie. Plantes phanérogames. Imprimerie V. Buck, Luxembourg. 279 S.
  • Koltz, J.-P.-J., 1874. Plantes Phanérogames découvertes dans le Grand-Duché depuis la publication de la Flore luxembourgeoise de Tinant (1836). Recueil des mémoires et des travaux publiés par la Société de botanique du grand-duché de Luxembourg 1: 12-39.
  • Krombach, J.-H.-G., 1875. Flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Plantes phanérogames. 564 p. Luxembourg, Imprimerie Joris.
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Solidago canadensis L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-06]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Solidago canadensis L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-06]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-21.

Quercus rubra L.

English Northern red oak Status LU: established. 1st record: <1873.
Lëtzebuergesch Rout Eech Status EU: established.
Français Chêne rouge d’Amérique RA: ISEIA: C1. Harmonia+: 0,29.
Deutsch Roteiche Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Northern red oak Wikipedia - Français - Chêne rouge d'Amérique Wikipedia - Deutsch - Roteiche Wikipedia - Nederlands - Amerikaanse eik | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Quercus rubra
Nederlands Amerikaanse eik Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Histoire des arbres forestiers de l'Amérique septentrionale (Pl. 26) (8720656612)Often planted in parks and woods, Quercus rubra L. grows on a variety of dry-mesic to mesic sites; it occurs in rich, mesic woods, on sandy plains, rock outcrops and at the outer edges of floodplains. It is intermediate in shade tolerance and is generally considered a midseral species, but its successional status is poorly known. It is generally unable to establish beneath its own canopy. In Lithuania, red oak seedlings have been reported to spread successfully over distances exceeding 300 metres from the parent trees. Its potential to colonise semi-natural habitats through long-distance dispersal is however uncertain in Belgian eco-climatic conditions (Branquart et al. 2012).

Where planted, red oak recruitment rate is very high and young trees can form a dense understorey excluding ground vegetation and other tree species. Exclusion of ferns and grasses is favoured by the release of allelochemicals by leaves and roots. It is favoured over other tree species by heavy cutting because of its sprouting ability. Red oak is characterised by a species-poor phytophagous and saproxylic community in comparison to native oaks. Litter is hardly degraded and favours soil acidification. The species has also been reported to accelerate colonisation of open habitats near forest edges (Branquart et al. 2012).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Quercus rubra L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-11-30.

Quercus rubra L. was first mentioned by Koltz (1873: 150) as grown in the forests, e.g. Johannisberg, Schäferei: Schönfels; this information is also listed by Krombach (1875: 407).

The oldest herbarium specimen of Quercus rubra L. at the MNHNL was collected in July 1949 by Jos. Witry near Fischbach (Specimen № 50691, MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 64 records of the northern red oak are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

The northern red oak is not rare, planting is even in progress, also as a street tree (Welter et al. 2008: 54).

Grown for wood production, usually on acidic and relatively dry soils, more rarely for ornamental purposes in parks and along roads. Subspontaneous or naturalised here and there (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 116).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C1 (1+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,29 = (Overall Invasion score 0,63 x Overall Impact score 0,47) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,63Invasion
0,47Impact
0,29Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2012. Harmonia database: Quercus rubra L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-15]
  • GBIF 2020. Quercus rubra J.F.Arnold in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-03-02.
  • Koltz, J.-P.-J., 1873. Prodrome de la flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Première partie. Plantes phanérogames. Imprimerie V. Buck, Luxembourg. 279 S.
  • Krombach, J.-H.-G., 1875. Flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Plantes phanérogames. 564 p. Luxembourg, Imprimerie Joris.
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Quercus rubra L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Quercus rubra L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]
  • Welter A., J.Turk & J. Trossen, 2008. Les arbres introduits au Luxembourg. Inventaire des essences arborescentes non indigènes de pleine terre présentes sur le territoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Ferrantia 53, Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, ISSN 1682-5519, 111 pp.

 Page content last updated on 2020-04-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.