Ceratophyllum submersum L., a new species for Luxembourg

MNHNL22119

Herbarium specimen MNHNL22119 at the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History.

Ceratophyllum submersum L., commonly known as the soft hornwort, is a submerged, free-floating aquatic plant.

A very dense submerged population of the soft hornwort was discovered in a pond near Sanem on 21st June 2015 by German botanists Jörg Zoldan and Annette Steinbach-Zoldan during a survey for the nature conservation organisation SICONA-Ouest. The pond had been artificially created in 2010.

In November 2015 specimens from this population were deposited in the herbarium of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History. 1

Ceratophyllum submersum, Flora Batava Vol. 19, 1893. Wikimedia Commons.

Ceratophyllum submersum, Flora Batava Vol. 19, 1893. Wikimedia Commons.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Unnoticed invasion of highways by halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb.

The annual halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (syn.: A. heterosperma Bunge) was first spotted in Hellange on 14 October 2007. By 2015, eight years later, it had colonised the median strip of huge parts of the Luxembourg highway network.

Read more in the post about Atriplex micrantha.

Atriplex_mi_Ries_small

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg, together with Senecio inaequidens. Curator Dr Christian Ries taking samples for the Museum herbarium. Photo: Dr Jim Meisch, 08.10.2015.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Atriplex micrantha Ledeb.

English n/a ISEIA: C2
Lëtzebuergesch Grot Mëll EASIN
Français Arroche hétérosperme Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Deutsch - Verschiedensamige_Melde
Deutsch Verschiedensamige Melde Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Atriplex micrantha
Nederlands Grijze melde Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

In its native Central Asia, Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. grows in steppes on saline soil, on the shores of water, or in the steppe and semi-desert zone. The species was introduced into large parts of Europe through trade and traffic. It was probably unintentionally introduced to Central Europe from Russia with grain supplies. Its first finds date from 1906 in Alsace (Rhine port). From there, it has spread out strongly along the waterways and traffic routes in recent decades (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-01-24.

The annual halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (syn.: A. heterosperma Bunge), once known as a very rare weed, began to naturalize in the flora territory in 2003. It spread rapidly along motorways, entering this territory apparently from the east and southwest (Germany and French Lorraine) (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 168).

The species was first spotted in Hellange (Municipality of Frisange) on 14 October 2007, in a roundabout at a construction site on controlled-access highway E29 (MNHNL, 2000-). 1

Since this single observation, the species managed to invade the Luxembourg highway network unnoticed, until a large population was spotted in summer 2015 in Potaschberg on the A1 highway between Trier and Luxembourg (Krippel & Colling 2016: 30). 2

A field inspection in autumn 2015 revealed the invasive plant grows in the median strip of the A1 almost from the German border until Luxembourg city in huge very dense populations 3, which confirms the Belgian point of view that “the species is still insufficiently known and widely neglected”. 4 Atriplex micrantha, which was dominant in the middle part of the median strip, occurred together with the following species: Senecio inaequidens (dominant on the borders of the median strip), Mercurialis annua, Plantago intermedia, Prunus spinosa and Rosa rugosa.

On 13 October 2015 the species was spotted along the Jersey barrier of highway A6 between the Belgian border and Mamer 5.

Since then the species managed to travel north along the A7 highway until Colmar-Berg and the B7 national highway until Ettelbruck (Krippel et al. 2018: 60).

Atriplex micrantha is very salt-tolerant and benefits from the extensive use of de-icing salt along motorways during winter. It probably arrived in Luxembourg via its large secondary distribution area in Germany, namely the A1 from Trier. It is present in our neighbouring regions in Belgium (Verloove 2006), Lorraine (Georges 2006) and Saarland (Weicherding 2007).

Atriplex micrantha Herbier MNHNL 2007

Specimen of the MNHNL Herbarium (Acc Nr. MNHNL 2011/47)

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway, together with Senecio inaequidens. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg, together with Senecio inaequidens. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Risk assessment

ISEIA Protocol: C2 (3+1+1+1). First assessed 16 February 2017 by Yves Krippel and Christian Ries.

Bibliography

  • Georges, N., 2006. Note sur deux nouvelles espèces de Chenopodiaceae adventices en Lorraine : Bassia scoparia (L.) Voss et Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. Willemetia 48: 1-4. [PDF]
  • Krippel, Y. & G. Colling, 2016. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2014-2015). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 118 : 27-51.
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-02]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-02]
  • Verloove, F., 2006. Atriplex micrantha, een nieuwe neofyt langs belangrijke verkeerswegen in België. Dumortiera 88: 15-20.
  • Weicherding, F.-J., 2007. Zur Verbreitung und Soziologie der adventiven Melden Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (Verschiedensamige Melde), Atriplex sagittata Borkh. (Glanz-Melde) und Atriplex oblongifolia Waldst. et Kit. (Langblättrige Melde) (Chenopodiaceae) im Saarland und in angrenzenden Gebieten. Abh. Delattinia 33: 117-139.
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. Seite „Verschiedensamige Melde“ in Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie. Bearbeitungsstand: 1. Mai 2019, 23:11 UTC. URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verschiedensamige_Melde&oldid=188124273 [accessed 23 October 2019]

http://euromed.luomus.fi/euromed_map.php?taxon=544848&size=medium

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-13. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-13.

Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq

English Billard’s bridewort ISEIA: B1 – Watch List
Lëtzebuergesch Billard-Kluddertrausch EASIN
Français Spirée de billard Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Français - Spirée de billard
Deutsch Billards Spierstrauch Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Spiraea × billardii
Nederlands Billardspirea Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq is a sterile horticultural hybrid between Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea douglasii Hook. It only reproduces clonally. It grows mainly in ruderal areas and in riparian habitats. Plant habitat preferences are poorly known so far.

S. billardii is a fast-growing rhizomatous species, propagating clonally. As for other Spiraea species, it may easily form dense monospecific thickets smothering native vegetation. It is not known, however, if it has the capacity to inhibit plant successions like S. alba (Branquart et al. 2010).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-01-24.

The first documented record of Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq was reported by Xavier Mestdagh on 27th June 2011, north of Consthum, municipality of Parc Hosingen (MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 5 records of Billard’s bridewort are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

This horticultural species is often grown for ornamental purposes in parks and gardens. Subspontaneous or naturalised: old hedges, roadsides, embankments, wastelands (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 326).

This Spiraea is by far the most widespread in the wild. However, the identity of the plant remains debatable: some authors distinguish Spiraea ×billardii (very pale pink corolla; narrowly conical inflorescence) and Spiraea ×Silverside Silverside (Spiraea douglasii × salicifolia) (bright pink corolla; subcylindrical inflorescence; leaf blade more regularly toothed, almost to the base), which would be much more common. However, the recognition of these two taxa seems difficult and therefore S. billardii is sometimes treated in a broad sense as a hybridogenic species that is more or less variable (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 326).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: B1 (2+2+3+2) = Watch List, reassessed on 24 January 2019 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Original assessment: B0 (2+2+3+2) = Alert List (Ries et al. 2013: 19).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-15]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-21. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-21.

Solidago gigantea L.

English Tall goldenrod ISEIA: A2 – Black List
Lëtzebuergesch Riseg Goldrutt EASIN
Français Verge d’or géante Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Tall goldenrod Wikipedia - Français - Verge d'or géante Wikipedia - Deutsch - Riesen-Goldrute Wikipedia - Nederlands - Late guldenroede
Deutsch Riesen-Goldrute Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Solidago gigantea
Nederlands Late guldenroede Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Solidago gigantea L. can grow in a wide range of soil conditions but is not shade-tolerant. The plant is found in many disturbed and nitrogen-rich sites such as ruderal areas, fallow lands, abandoned fields, river banks, etc. and also colonises humid grasslands. It can build up dense and long-lasting populations and easily outcompete native plants, including tree seedlings. Competitive ability is favoured by allelopathic interactions. Once established, the plant may remain dominant for a long period of time and often prevents natural colonisation by woody species (Branquart et al. 2010).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Solidago gigantea L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-01-24.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the MNHNL was collected under its synonym Solidago serotina Aiton on 8 September 1887 by Jean Feltgen (1833-1904) in a garden (“jardin Bosseler”) in Mersch (Specimen № 15601, MNHNL 2000-). The next record is a herbarium specimen collected by Jos Witry on 15 July 1937 in gardens in Rumelange (Specimen № 50850, MNHNL 2000-).

The first documented record in the wild was reported on 22 September 1960 by Léopold Reichling (1921-2009) in several locations of the Grund district in Luxembourg City (Bock, Stierchen, Breedewee) (MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 78 records of tall goldenrod are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

This melliferous species native to North America is naturalised in Europe: fairly common to fairly rare, present in waterfronts, forest edges, wastelands, wastelands; often in large stands (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 703).

This species includes populations in North America with variable chromosome numbers. Naturalised plants in Europe have generally been reported to Solidago gigantea subsp. serotina (O. Kuntze) McNeill, still known to be tetraploid. The question remains, however, whether Solidago gigantea subsp. gigantea, diploid, also exists in Europe, and especially whether the two taxa are morphologically identifiable. The problem remains to be studied in the wild (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 703).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: A2 (3+2+3+3) = Black List (Ries et al. 2013: 19).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Solidago gigantea L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-15]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Solidago gigantea L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Solidago gigantea L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-21. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-21.

Solidago canadensis L.

English Canada goldenrod ISEIA: A2 – Black List
Lëtzebuergesch Kanadesch Goldrutt EASIN
Français Verge d’or du Canada Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Canada goldenrod Wikipedia - Français - Verge d'or du Canada Wikipedia - Deutsch - Kanadische Goldrute Wikipedia - Nederlands - Canadese guldenroede
Deutsch Kanadische Goldrute Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Solidago canadensis
Nederlands Canadese guldenroede Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

In its native range, the Canada goldenrod is found mainly on forest edges and roadsides, in abandoned fields and other unmanaged areas which it colonises rapidly after abandonment. Where it has been introduced, it occupies the same habitats as in its native range but also occurs in dry meadows of high conservation value and on wetland fringes. S. canadensis is a pioneer and light-demanding species that occurs over a wide range of soil fertility and texture conditions. It can eliminate almost all other plant species; competitive ability is favoured by allelopathic interactions. Once established, the plant may remain dominant for a long period of time and often prevents natural colonisation by woody species (Branquart et al. 2011).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Solidago canadensis L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-01-24.

The oldest reference to the species dates from 1872 and states that the species is cultivated for garden decoration, and that it often becomes naturalised in the vicinity of homes and on cemeteries (Fischer 1872: 82). Koltz (1873: 128) lists the species as “cultivated and sometimes subspontaneous near homes and waterways”. Koltz (1874: 30) states that it also becomes naturalised in the vicinity of watercourses. Krombach (1875: 343) states that the species is cultivated and occurs subspontaneously very rarely (RR) in the vicinity of houses. According to Lambinon & Verloove (2012: 703), this naturalised and melliferous species can be found quite rarely (AR-R) in waterfront, forest edges, vacant lots and wastelands.

The first scientific record that we know of was made by François Léon Lefort (1917-1975) on 17th August 1949 in the Clausen district of Luxembourg City, in neglected gardens and beside paths at the site of the former Mansfeld park (Specimen № 26916, MNHNL 2000-). 174 observations are accessible via the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: A2 (3+2+3+3) = Black List (Ries et al. 2013: 19).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum, F. Verloove, 2011. Harmonia database: Solidago canadensis L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-03]
  • Fischer, E., 1872. Les plantes subspontanées et naturalisées de la flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Publications de l’Institut royal grand-ducal de Luxembourg, section des sciences naturelles et mathématiques XII: 1-115. Imprimerie V. Buck, Luxembourg.
  • Koltz, J.-P.-J., 1873. Prodrome de la flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Première partie. Plantes phanérogames. Imprimerie V. Buck, Luxembourg. 279 S.
  • Koltz, J.-P.-J., 1874. Plantes Phanérogames découvertes dans le Grand-Duché depuis la publication de la Flore luxembourgeoise de Tinant (1836). Recueil des mémoires et des travaux publiés par la Société de botanique du grand-duché de Luxembourg 1: 12-39.
  • Krombach, J.-H.-G., 1875. Flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Plantes phanérogames. 564 p. Luxembourg, Imprimerie Joris.
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Solidago canadensis L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-06]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Solidago canadensis L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-06]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-21. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-21.

Quercus rubra L.

English Northern red oak ISEIA: C1
Lëtzebuergesch Rout Eech EASIN
Français Chêne rouge d’Amérique Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Northern red oak Wikipedia - Français - Chêne rouge d'Amérique Wikipedia - Deutsch - Roteiche Wikipedia - Nederlands - Amerikaanse eik
Deutsch Roteiche Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Quercus rubra
Nederlands Amerikaanse eik Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Often planted in parks and woods, Quercus rubra L. grows on a variety of dry-mesic to mesic sites; it occurs in rich, mesic woods, on sandy plains, rock outcrops and at the outer edges of floodplains. It is intermediate in shade tolerance and is generally considered a midseral species, but its successional status is poorly known. It is generally unable to establish beneath its own canopy. In Lithuania, red oak seedlings have been reported to spread successfully over distances exceeding 300 metres from the parent trees. Its potential to colonise semi-natural habitats through long-distance dispersal is however uncertain in Belgian eco-climatic conditions (Branquart et al. 2012).

Where planted, red oak recruitment rate is very high and young trees can form a dense understorey excluding ground vegetation and other tree species. Exclusion of ferns and grasses is favoured by the release of allelochemicals by leaves and roots. It is favoured over other tree species by heavy cutting because of its sprouting ability. Red oak is characterised by a species-poor phytophagous and saproxylic community in comparison to native oaks. Litter is hardly degraded and favours soil acidification. The species has also been reported to accelerate colonisation of open habitats near forest edges (Branquart et al. 2012).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Quercus rubra L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-01-24.

Quercus rubra L. was first mentioned by Koltz (1873: 150) as grown in the forests, e.g. Johannisberg, Schäferei: Schönfels; this information is also listed by Krombach (1875: 407).

The oldest herbarium specimen of Quercus rubra L. at the MNHNL was collected in July 1949 by Jos. Witry near Fischbach (Specimen № 50691, MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 64 records of the northern red oak are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

The northern red oak is not rare, planting is even in progress, also as a street tree (Welter et al. 2008: 54).

Grown for wood production, usually on acidic and relatively dry soils, more rarely for ornamental purposes in parks and along roads. Subspontaneous or naturalised here and there (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 116).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: C1 (1+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2012. Harmonia database: Quercus rubra L. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-15]
  • Koltz, J.-P.-J., 1873. Prodrome de la flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Première partie. Plantes phanérogames. Imprimerie V. Buck, Luxembourg. 279 S.
  • Krombach, J.-H.-G., 1875. Flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Plantes phanérogames. 564 p. Luxembourg, Imprimerie Joris.
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Quercus rubra L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Quercus rubra L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]
  • Welter A., J.Turk & J. Trossen, 2008. Les arbres introduits au Luxembourg. Inventaire des essences arborescentes non indigènes de pleine terre présentes sur le territoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Ferrantia 53, Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, ISSN 1682-5519, 111 pp.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-20. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.

Prunus serotina Ehrh.

English Black cherry ISEIA: B1 – Watch List
Lëtzebuergesch Spéid Drauwekiischt EASIN
Français Cerisier d’automne Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Black cherry Wikipedia - Français - Cerisier d'automne Wikipedia - Deutsch - Spätblühende Traubenkirsche Wikipedia - Nederlands - Amerikaanse_vogelkers
Deutsch Spätblühende Traubenkirsche Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Prunus serotina
Nederlands Amerikaanse vogelkers Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Prunus serotina Ehrh. prefers dry to moist sandy soils. It is an opportunistic gap-phase tree species efficiently dispersed over long distances by fruit-eating birds and mammals. It thrives in forest clearings and woodlands dominated by light-demanding species such as oak, pine or birch. It can also invade various types of semi-natural open habitats with a wide range of humidity levels like wetlands, bogs, heathlands, dry grasslands and dunes.

Black cherry forms dense, highly competitive thickets, e.g. through root sprouting. In forest ecosystems, it locally affects the development of ground and shrub layers. It may temporarily inhibit vegetation succession, especially in large forest openings. It is able to reduce plant species richness or modify the composition of plant communities (e.g. in heavily invaded stands on moist soils). Invasion of forest ecosystems by P. serotina can change humus conditions and reduce soil water availability due to increased interception and transpiration. It can also prevent forest rejuvenation and increase plantation costs. Impact on biodiversity is especially marked when black cherry colonises open habitats containing rare species like heathlands, dry grasslands or dune ecosystems. The whole plant contains cyanic acid and is toxic for livestock. It is poorly consumed by deer, which may favour invasion rate in habitats where deer are overabundant (Branquart et al. 2012).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Prunus serotina Ehrh. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-01-24.

In Luxembourg, Prunus serotina Ehrh. was documented for the first time by Léopold Reichling on 31st August 1960 at Grondmillen in the municipality of Esch-sur-Sûre (MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 31 records of the black cherry are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

The black cherry is grown for ornamental purposes in parks and along roads. Often subspontaneous or naturalised: woods, moors, hedges, wastelands (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 366).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: B1 (2+2+3+3) = Watch List (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, M. Vanhellemont, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum, K. Verheyen & F. Verloove, 2012. Harmonia database: Prunus serotina Ehrh.. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-15]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Prunus serotina Ehrh. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Prunus serotina Ehrh. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]
  • Welter A., J.Turk & J. Trossen, 2008. Les arbres introduits au Luxembourg. Inventaire des essences arborescentes non indigènes de pleine terre présentes sur le territoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Ferrantia 53, Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, ISSN 1682-5519, 111 pp.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-20. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.

Populus ×canadensis Moench

English Canadian poplar ISEIA: C3
Lëtzebuergesch Kanadesch Pëppel EASIN
Français Peuplier noir hybride Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Deutsch - Bastard-Schwarz-Pappel Wikipedia - Nederlands - Canadapopulier
Deutsch Bastard-Schwarz-Pappel Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Populus × canadensis
Nederlands Canadapopulier Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Populus ×canadensis Moench is a tree species that originates from hybridisation events between P. nigra, the European poplar and two American poplars, P. deltoides and P. angulata. It occurs in many varieties and can appear spontaneously wherever the parent species is present, but is also commonly bred and planted all over the world. The Canadian poplar thrives on periodically inundated flood plains, nonetheless it can also be found in ruderal areas. The tree threatens to extinguish its parent species and can contribute to the desiccation of its wetland habitats.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Populus ×canadensis Moench in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-01-24.

Populus ×canadensis Moench was first mentioned in Luxembourg under its synonym Populus monilifera Willd. (Tinant 1836: 490). Koltz (1873: 153) and Krombach (1875: 415) state that Populus canadensis [sic] is “common and grown in avenues where only male feet are most often found”.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the MNHNL was collected on 21 April 1935 by Jos. Witry in Bergem (Specimen № 50719, MNHNL 2000-). The next scientific record that we know of was made by Léopold Reichling (1921-2009) on 2nd September 1983 in Ehnen (Municipality of Wormeldange).

Currently, 86 records of the Canadian poplar are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

The Canadian poplar is rather common in Luxembourg.

Other poplar hybrids and varieties

Many poplar hybrids from artificial crosses between P. nigra and North American P. deltoides, complicated by return crosses, selections and various improvements, are grouped under the name of Populus ×canadensis; some cultivars are old (about two centuries), others of more or less recent origin. Often, some only include male individuals, while others are female gen. The main varieties and forms traditionally cultivated are var. canadensis, var. gelrica (Houtzagers) Geerinck and var. marilandica (Bosc ex Poiret) Rehd. Some subspontaneous poplars (riversides…), which may result from spontaneous return crosses between Populus ×canadensis and P. nigra, are of delicate determination (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 230-231).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: C3 (2+2+2+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Bibliography

  • Krombach, J.-H.-G., 1875. Flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Plantes phanérogames. 564 p. Luxembourg, Imprimerie Joris.
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Populus ×canadensis Moench in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Populus ×canadensis Moench in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]
  • Tinant, F. A., 1836. Flore luxembourgeoise, ou, Description des plantes phanérogames, recueillies et observées dans le grand-duché de Luxembourg, classées d’après le système sexuel de Linnée. 512 p. Luxembourg, J. P. Kuborn.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-20. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.

Pinus nigra Arnold

English Black pine Status LU: established. 1st record: <1873
Lëtzebuergesch Schwaarz Kifer Status EU: established.
Français Pin noir d’Autriche RA: ISEIA: A2, Black List
Deutsch Schwarzkiefer Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Black pine Wikipedia - Français - Pin noir d'Autriche Wikipedia - Deutsch - Schwarzkiefer Wikipedia - Nederlands - Zwarte den | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Pinus_nigra
Nederlands Zwarte den Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Pinus nigra Arnold is a wide-ranging and extremely variable evergreen conifer that usually has a straight trunk, pyramidal shape and strong horizontal branches that have upswept tips. It grows on a variety of soils, from podzolic sands to limestone.

The black pine can have negative impacts on semi-dry and dry grassland biotopes.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Pinus nigra Arnold in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020-01-24.

Koltz (1873: 155) and Krombach (1875: 421) mention the species under its synonym Pinus austriaca Höss as quite common, cultivated in woods on limestone: Edingsberg, Neudorf (Koltz: 1859; Krombach: 1853), Grünenwald (1856), Baumbusch (Koltz: 1868; Krombach: 1860), etc.

Pinus nigra Arnold was first documented in the wild in Luxembourg by Léopold Reichling on 22nd May 1954 in Nommern, Municipality of Nommern (MNHNL 2000-).

180 records are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

Two subspecies are cultivated: Pinus nigra subsp. nigra (Austrian black pine) and Pinus nigra subsp. laricio Maire (Corsican pine) (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 49). All individuals that occur in Luxembourg probably belong to the subspecies Pinus nigra subsp. nigra, Austrian black pine (Welter et al. 2008: 32).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: A2 (2+3+3+3) = Black List , reassessed on 25 November 2019 by C. Ries. First assessment: A1 (2+3+3+3) = Black List (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Bibliography

  • Koltz, J.-P.-J., 1873. Prodrome de la flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Première partie. Plantes phanérogames. Imprimerie V. Buck, Luxembourg. 279 S.
  • Krombach, J.-H.-G., 1875. Flore du grand-duché de Luxembourg. Plantes phanérogames. 564 p. Luxembourg, Imprimerie Joris.
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Pinus nigra Arnold in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Pinus nigra Arnold in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]
  • Welter A., J.Turk & J. Trossen, 2008. Les arbres introduits au Luxembourg. Inventaire des essences arborescentes non indigènes de pleine terre présentes sur le territoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Ferrantia 53, Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, ISSN 1682-5519, 111 pp.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-25. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.