Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch

 

English False Virginia creeper Status LU: established. 1st record: LU 1883, ITW <1957.
Lëtzebuergesch Gewéinleche Wëlle Wäin Status Eur.: established. 1st record: UK 1824. 1
Français Vigne vierge commune RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: 0,34.
Deutsch Gewöhnliche Jungfernrebe Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - False Virginia creeper Wikipedia - Français - Vigne vierge commune Wikipedia - Deutsch - Wilder Wein Wikipedia - Nederlands - Valse wingerd | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Parthenocissus inserta
Nederlands Valse wingerd Back to the list of neophytes

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General note on Parthenocissus spp.

Toftenäs Tjörn 2019 08 07 cOriginally observed in man-made habitats, these popular garden plants can be found increasingly in natural habitats like coastal dunes, riparian habitats and wood margins (Parthenocissus inserta) or rock outcrops (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). They usually thrive on nutrient-rich soils. Seeds are dispersed over long distances by birds. With its dense growth, the plant may cover, out-compete and kill native vegetation (Branquart et al. 2011).

Notes on species distribution and identification

The data situation is poor, which makes it difficult to assess the distribution of Parthenocissus species.

Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch has long been confused with Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. originating from North America. However, the latter is distinguished by its more branched twists (5-8 twists per twist, compared to gen. 3-5 in P. inserta), with branches provided at their end with a differentiated adhesive disc (simply swollen at their end in P. inserta) and by its leaflets with more obtuse and generally less deep teeth. A hybrid between the two species is also reported. It remains to be seen whether P. quinquefolia and the above-mentioned hybrid have been found in a subspontaneous state in the wild (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

The identification characteristics given here often cannot be checked on the collected herbarium material because certain organs are missing.

These characteristics are also questioned by various authors: “Traditionally the two species have been separated on the basis of the branching of their tendrils and the formation of adhesive pads where the tendrils make contact with a solid surface. However, there has been some suggestion that this is not a reliable characteristic and that both species will form adhesive pads, just to varying degrees” (David 2010).

During the research of first records for Parthenocissus spp., we were not able to assess available documents and specimens, due to diverging morphological descriptions in floras and missing organs on specimens, which led us to assess on the genus level only (Ries & Krippel 2021).

We conclude that the genus should be revised in Luxembourg: samples and herbarium specimens should be collected from all known occurrences, in the wild as well as cultivated, and the tendrils should be documented as well with photos, as they are difficult to sample without partial destruction. Together with the old herbarium specimens, they should all be subjected to genetic analysis in order to provide clarity.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021-05-17.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the MNHNL was collected in July 1883 by Edmond Joseph Klein (1866-1942) from a cultivated false Virginia creeper in Wiltz (Specimen № 16636, MNHNL 2000-). The next scientific record that we know of was made under its synonym Parthenocissus vitacea Hitchc. by Jean-Jacques Kariger in 1957 on the Wurthsberg in the Clausen district of Luxembourg City (Kariger 1959: 74; MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 4 records of the false Virginia creeper are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

This south and western North American species is melliferous and cultivated to cover walls or facades. Quite frequently subspontaneous or naturalised locally: old walls, hedges, ruderalized forest edges, wastelands, stream banks, slag heaps, railway ballast (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 457).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (3+3+2+2), reassessed on 10 July 2018 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Originally assessed together with Parthenocissus quinquefolia as Parthenocissus spp. C1 (1+1+1+1) (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,34 = (Overall Invasion score 0,69 x Overall Impact score 0,50) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,69Invasion
0,50Impact
0,34Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2011. Harmonia database: Parthenocissus spp. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-14]
  • David, J.C., 2010. Untangling the climbers – Parthenocissus quinquefolia & P. inserta. BSBI News 113: 60-61.
  • GBIF, 2020. Parthenocissus inserta (A.Kerner) Fritsch in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Hand, R., H. Reichert, W. Bujnoch, U. Kottke, & S. Caspari, 2016. Flora der Region Trier. 1. Aufl. 1.636 S. in zwei Bänden. Verlag Michael Weyand, Trier.
  • Kariger, J.-J., 1959. Florule et capitale: Le Wurthsberg de Clausen et quelques hauteurs analogues. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 62: 59-81. [PDF 1302 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kerner) Fritsch in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-14]
  • Petrova, A., V. Vladimirov & V. Georgiev, 2013. Invasive alien species of vascular plants in Bulgaria. Bulgarian academy of science, Sofia. 319 p.
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021 [Unpublished manuscript]. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. MNHNL & Naturpark Öewersauer.
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]
  • Rosbach, H., 1880. Flora von Trier. Verzeichniss der im Regierungsbezirke Trier sowie dessen nächster Umgebung wild wachsenden, häufiger angebauten und verwilderten Gefässpflanzen nebst Angabe ihrer Hauptkennzeichen und ihrer Verbreitung. 2 Bände. Ed. Groppe, Trier 1880. 231 und 197 Seiten.

 Page content last updated on 2021-03-05. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-20.

Spot the cherry laurel – A citizen science survey with children

The children’s magazine Panewippchen, edited for the members of the Panda Club of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History, has published an interview with Dr Christian Ries, curator of the Department of Ecology:

  • Schaltz, Michèle, 2017. Fuerschung am ‘Natur Musée’: Ekologie. Panewippchen 4: 6-11. [PDF 2.2 MB]

The last page of the article encourages the young readers to participate in a citizen science survey concerning the recent spread into the wild of the cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.), a common garden plant in Luxembourg, mostly planted to build hedges. Fruits can be dispersed over long distances by birds.

Interested children are asked to look in the forests around their neighbourhood, the evergreen cherry laurel being very easy to spot in winter time, when trees and shrubs lose their leaves.

The children are asked to send the following basic information to :

  1. How many cherry laurel individuals have been spotted?
  2. Where were they spotted (using GPS of portable devices)
  3. Observer’s name, age, address and email address.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-11.

Cochlearia danica L.

English Danish scurvygrass Status LU: established. 1st record: LU & ITW 2011.
Lëtzebuergesch Dänescht Läffelkraut Status Eur.: established.
Français Cochléaire du Danemark RA: ISEIA: C1. Harmonia+: 0,02
Deutsch Dänisches Löffelkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Danish scurvygrass Wikipedia - Français - Wikipedia - Deutsch - Dänisches Löffelkraut Wikipedia - Nederlands - Deens lepelblad | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Cochlearia danica
Nederlands Deens lepelblad Back to the list of neophytes

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Brief description

Cochlearia danica L. is native to coastal habitats in the following countries in Europe: Belgium, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Finland, Netherlands, Ireland, Germany, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain and Sweden (Fekete et al. 2018: 27). This salt-tolerant coastal flowering plant is now flourishing along roads and motorways in Europe, especially under the crash barriers in the central reservation. Its success has been attributed to its ability to survive the effects of salts distributed by gritters in winter and its small seeds being spread by the high speed of cars in the fast lane. Literature data indicate a rapid spread of this species along European roads, of 62–65 km/year (Fekete et al. 2018: 28). Full of vitamin C, the Danish scurvygrass gets its name from sailors chewing it to avoid scurvy. The mauve flowers are 4-5mm in diameter (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Cochlearia danica L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021-05-17.

Cochlearia danica L. was first collected on 2011-05-05 in Luxembourg-Kirchberg by Jean-Claude Kirpach (MNHNL 2000-). 1 Since this first observation, the species has been spotted twice along the controlled-access A6 highway near Windhof and Aire de Capellen (Krippel et al. 2018: 61-62). The Danish scurvygrass continues to expand eastward along this highway (Krippel et al. 2020).

In a recent survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg (Ehl et al. 2019), the Danish scurvygrass was not recorded, although it was expected to be found, as it was recently recorded in Trier in Germany (Hand et al. 2016) and Arlon in Belgium (Remacle 2015).

On 2018-04-11, its presence was confirmed also along the A1 motorway to Germany, more than 100,000 plants especially along the central berm, but also along the lateral strips, over several km with interruptions (Krippel et al. 2020).

In April 2021, further occurrences of the species were discovered, as white flowering patches along the A7 motorway between Mersch and Schieren: Mierscherbierg-Rouscht, after the Colmarbierg slip road and at the Schieren exit (Krippel in litt. 2021).

The general spread of Cochlearia danica has been following the pattern of roads leading from the coast to the hinterland (Brandes 2009). The Danish scurvygrass, quite common on the coasts of Western Europe, is expanding inland mainly in the north and centre of the flora territory, following the massive use of snow removal salts in winter, especially along highways (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 270-271).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C1 (1+1+1+1). First assessed 24 January 2019 by Manou Pfeiffenschneider and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,02 = (Overall Invasion score 0,42 x Overall Impact score 0,07) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,42Invasion
0,07Impact
0,02Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Brandes, D., 2009. Autobahnen als Wuchsorte und Ausbreitungswege von Ruderal- und Adventivpflanzen. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften 8(2): 373-394.
  • Ehl, S., K. Mildenberger, T. Frankenberg & C. Ries, 2019. Halophytes in roadside habitats: a survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 37-51. [PDF 24.03 MB]
  • Fekete, R., A. Mesterházy, O. Valkó & V. A. Molnár, 2018. A hitchhiker from the beach: the spread of the maritime halophyte Cochlearia danica along salted continental roads. Preslia 90: 23–37. DOI: 10.23855/preslia.2018.023
  • GBIF 2020. Cochlearia danica L. in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-02-28.
  • Hand, R., H. Reichert, W. Bujnoch, U. Kottke & S. Caspari, 2016. Flora der Region Trier (1. & 2. Band). Verlag Michael Weyand GmbH, Trier, 1637 pp.
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB]
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2020. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2018-2019). Bulletin Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122 : 29-55. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Cochlearia danica L. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-05]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Cochlearia danica L. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-09-06]
  • Remacle, A., 2015. L’intérêt botanique des espaces verts autoroutiers : le cas de l’autoroute E411 près d’Arlon (province de Luxembourg, Belgique). Dumortiera 107: 3-21.
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021 [Unpublished manuscript]. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. MNHNL & Naturpark Öewersauer.
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. Cochlearia danica L. in Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 16 September 2019. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cochlearia_danica&oldid=916018993 [accessed 3 October 2019]

Not cited bibliography concerning our neighbouring areas

  • Cochard, P.-O., 2005. Cochlearia danica L., une halophyte adventice des autoroutes. Symbioses nouvelle série 13 : 69-74. [http://pierreo.cochard.free.fr/cv_poc/Cochard_Cochlearia.pdf]
  • Havrenne, A., 1995. Cochlearia danica, plante halophile nouvelle pour le Hainaut. Natura Mosana 48 : 68-69.
  • Mennema, J., 1986. Cochlearia danica L. op weg naar de binnenlanden van België en West-Duitsland. Dumortiera 34-35 : 139-142.
  • Olivier, J.-F., 1996. Nouvelles stations de Cochlearia danica L. près de Bruxelles. Dumortiera 66 : 1-3.
  • Remacle, A., 2015. L’intérêt botanique des espaces verts autoroutiers : le cas de l’autoroute E411 près d’Arlon (province de Luxembourg, Belgique). Dumortiera 107 : 3-21.
  • Robyns, J., 1978. Floristische mededelingen : Cochlearia danica te Ezemaal. Dumortiera 10 : 296.
  • Zwaenepoel, A., 1994. Cochlearia danica L. als bermhalofyt langs verkeerswegen in het Vlaamse binnenland. Dumortiera 55-57 : 43-49.

 Page content last updated on 2021-04-28. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Impatiens balfourii Hook.f.

English Balfour’s touch-me-not, Kashmir balsam Status LU: casual. 1st record: LU <1995, ITW 2016.
Lëtzebuergesch Balfour-Sprangkraut Status Eur.: established. 1st record: FR ~1890. 1
Français Impatiente, balsamine de Balfour RA: ISEIA: B1 – Watch List. Harmonia+: 0,09.
Deutsch Balfour’s Springkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Himalayan Balsam Wikipedia - Français - Impatiente de l'Inde | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Impatiens glandulifera | CABI
Nederlands Tweekleurig springzaad Back to the list of neophytes

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Brief description

Impatiens balfourii9Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. is a species of the genus Impatiens known by the common names Balfour’s touch-me-not, Kashmir balsam, and Poor Man’s Orchid. It belongs to the family Balsaminaceae. It is native to the Himalayas, particularly Kashmir and surrounding areas, where it grows on mountains of 5,000 to 6,000 feet. It was brought back to England and many other European countries as a garden plant. It can now be found growing wild as a garden escapee in Europe. In the wild the plant occurs along the banks of rivers, on roadsides, and in wastelands. It thrives in cool and moist areas, at an altitude of 100–600 m above sea level (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021-05-17.

In Luxembourg, Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. was first observed in 2009 in the Mediterranian Garden in Schwebsange, when “Natur & Ëmwelt Fondatioun Hëllef fir d’Natur” took over the management of the premises. The former owners recalled having brought the species from a trip to Lago Maggiore in Northern Italy in the late 1980ies or early 1990ies (Moes 2021). We thus assume the 1st record of the species is to be dated before 1995.

The species was first observed in the wild by Roland Proess on 2016-08-05 at Schëttermarjal on the edge of the Kirchberg plateau in Luxembourg City (Krippel & Proess 2017). The species is at present considered to be subspontaneous; it may however have the potential of becoming naturalised in Luxembourg due to climate change (Krippel & Proess 2017).

A second observation of this melliferous Himalayan species was made on 2020-08-28 on a ruderal stand next to a stone wall in Neudorf (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2021).

Cultivated as an ornamental garden plant. Found subspontaneously here and there, or sometimes naturalised locally, especially in the south (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 480).

Impatiens balfourii has its origins in the west Himalayan region (Grey-Wilson 1983). This species of the Balsaminaceae family was simultaneously introduced in 1901 at the Jardin des plantes de Montpellier and the Botanical Garden of Edinburgh (Adamowski 2009). It has been cultivated in Europe as an ornamental plant since the beginning of the 20th century; in Luxembourg it is grown, for example, in the Jardin méditerranéen in Schwebsange. Nowadays the species is naturalised in major parts of south and central Europe (Adamowski 2009, Schmitz & Dericks 2010).

Other Impatiens taxa and hybrids

In 2011 the annual hybrid I. parviflora × I. balfourii was discovered in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland. The fertile hybrid with alternating leaves can be up to 60 cm high. Considerable populations of the hybrid were observed in 2014 in the canton of Ticino in the absence of the parent species (Van Valkenburg et al. 2019).

Three other alien balsam species occur in Luxembourg:

  • Impatiens balsamina L.: the garden balsam is already mentioned in Krombach’s flora of 1875 as “Introduced from the East Indies and grown in all gardens” (Krombach 1875: 56).
  • Impatiens glandulifera Royle: the invasive Himalayan Balsam, which is widespread in riparian ecosystems and forests across Luxembourg.
  • Impatiens parviflora DC.: the small balsam, which is widespread in forests across Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (3+3+3+1) = Watch List. First assessed 16 February 2017 by Yves Krippel and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,09 = (Overall Invasion score 0,17 x Overall Impact score 0,30) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,17Invasion
0,30Impact
0,09Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Adamowski, W., 2009. Impatiens balfourii as an emerging invader in Europe. Neobiota 8: 183-194.
  • CABI, 2019. Impatiens balfourii. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-02]
  • GBIF, 2020. Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei [accessed 2020-03-02]
  • Grey-Wilson, C., 1983. A survey of the genus Impatiens in cultivation. The Plantsman 5(2): 86-102.
  • Krippel, Y. & R. Proess, 2017. Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. (Balsaminaceae), nouvelle espèce subspontanée au Luxembourg ?! Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 55-61 [PDF].
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • Matthews, J., R. Beringen, E. Boer, H. Duistermaat, B. Odé, J. L. C. H. van Valkenburg, G. van der Velde & R. S. E. W. Leuven, 2015. Risks and management of non-native Impatiens species in the Netherlands. Ed. by Radboud University, FLORON and Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Reports Environmental Science 491, 2015. 177 S. [PDF]
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-11]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021. Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2021-01-12]
  • Moes, G., 2021. Personal communication by E-mail to Yves Krippel on 2021-01-09.
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021 [Unpublished manuscript]. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. MNHNL & Naturpark Öewersauer.
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Schmitz, U. & G. Dericks, 2010. Spread of alien invasive Impatiens balfourii in Europe and its temperature, light and soil moisture demands. Flora 205: 772-776.
  • Van Valkenburg, J. L. C. H., N. Schoenenberger, B. T. L. H. van de Vossenberg, W. A. Man in’t Veld, M. Westenberg & E. Boer, 2019. A natural hybrid of Impatiens, in the introduced range, demonstrated by sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal DNA-gene repeat. Botany Letters 166: 144-152.
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. in Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 September 2019, 14:49 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Impatiens_balfourii&oldid=917160050> [accessed 2019-10-11]

 Page content last updated on 2021-04-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-19.

Publication of a leaflet on Ambrosia artemisiifolia

In autumn 2016 the Department for the Environment of the Luxembourg Ministry of sustainable development and infrastructures edited a leaflet in German and French about Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in co-operation with the National Museum of Natural History and efor-ersa ingénieurs-conseils. It can be downloaded here in PDF format (4 MB each).

More information on the Common Ragweed in Luxembourg can be found in a dedicated article on this website.

flyer-cover-de   flyer-cover-fr

 Page content last updated on 2020-03-30. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Ceratophyllum submersum L., a new species for Luxembourg

MNHNL22119

Herbarium specimen MNHNL22119 at the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History.

Ceratophyllum submersum L., commonly known as the soft hornwort, is a submerged, free-floating aquatic plant.

A very dense submerged population of the soft hornwort was discovered in a pond near Sanem on 21st June 2015 by German botanists Jörg Zoldan and Annette Steinbach-Zoldan during a survey for the nature conservation organisation SICONA-Ouest. The pond had been artificially created in 2010.

In November 2015 specimens from this population were deposited in the herbarium of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History. 1

Ceratophyllum submersum, Flora Batava Vol. 19, 1893. Wikimedia Commons.

Ceratophyllum submersum, Flora Batava Vol. 19, 1893. Wikimedia Commons.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Unnoticed invasion of highways by halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb.

The annual halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (syn.: A. heterosperma Bunge) was first spotted in Hellange on 14 October 2007. By 2015, eight years later, it had colonised the median strip of huge parts of the Luxembourg highway network.

Read more in the post about Atriplex micrantha.

Atriplex_mi_Ries_small

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg, together with Senecio inaequidens. Curator Dr Christian Ries taking samples for the Museum herbarium. Photo: Dr Jim Meisch, 08.10.2015.

 Page content last updated on 2019-11-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-12.

Atriplex micrantha Ledeb.

English n/a Status LU: established. 1st record: LU & ITW 2007.
Lëtzebuergesch Grot Mëll Status Eur.: established. 1st record: FR 1906.
Français Arroche hétérosperme RA: ISEIA: C2. Harmonia+: 0,09
Deutsch Verschiedensamige Melde Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Deutsch - Verschiedensamige_Melde | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Atriplex micrantha | CABI
Nederlands Grijze melde Back to the list of neophytes

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Brief description

In its native Central Asia, Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. grows in steppes on saline soil, on the shores of water, or in the steppe and semi-desert zone. The species was introduced into large parts of Europe through trade and traffic. It was probably unintentionally introduced to Central Europe from Russia with grain supplies. Its first finds date from 1906 in Alsace (Rhine port). From there, it has spread out strongly along the waterways and traffic routes in recent decades (Wikipedia contributors 2019).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021-05-17.

The annual halophyte Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (syn.: A. heterosperma Bunge), once known as a very rare weed, began to naturalize in the flora territory in 2003. It spread rapidly along motorways, entering this territory apparently from the east and southwest (Germany and French Lorraine) (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 168).

The species was first spotted in Hellange (Municipality of Frisange) on 14 October 2007, in a roundabout at a construction site on controlled-access highway E29 (Weicherding 2007, MNHNL 2000-, herbarium nr 22483). 1

Since this single observation, the species managed to invade the Luxembourg highway network unnoticed, until a large population was spotted in summer 2015 in Potaschberg on the A1 highway between Trier and Luxembourg (Krippel & Colling 2016: 30). 2

A field inspection in autumn 2015 revealed the invasive plant grows in the median strip of the A1 almost from the German border until Luxembourg city in huge very dense populations 3, which confirms the Belgian point of view that “the species is still insufficiently known and widely neglected”. 4 Atriplex micrantha, which was dominant in the middle part of the median strip, occurred together with the following species: Senecio inaequidens (dominant on the borders of the median strip), Mercurialis annua, Plantago intermedia, Prunus spinosa and Rosa rugosa.

On 13 October 2015 the species was spotted along the Jersey barrier of highway A6 between the Belgian border and Mamer 5.

Since then the species managed to travel north along the A7 highway until Colmar-Berg and the B7 national highway until Ettelbruck (Krippel et al. 2018: 60). Since then, the expansion of the species is ongoing along these highways (Krippel et. al 2020: 33).

Atriplex micrantha is very salt-tolerant and benefits from the extensive use of de-icing salt along motorways during winter. It probably arrived in Luxembourg via its large secondary distribution area in Germany, namely the A1 from Trier. It is present in our neighbouring regions in Belgium (Verloove 2006), Lorraine (Georges 2006) and Saarland (Weicherding 2007).

Atriplex micrantha Herbier MNHNL 2007

Specimen of the MNHNL Herbarium (Acc Nr. MNHNL 2011/47)

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway, together with Senecio inaequidens. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Atriplex micrantha in the median strip of the A1 highway near Potaschberg, together with Senecio inaequidens. Photo: Jim Meisch, 08.10.2014.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C2 (3+1+1+1). First assessed 16 February 2017 by Yves Krippel and Christian Ries.

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,09 = (Overall Invasion score 0,36 x Overall Impact score 0,25) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,36Invasion
0,25Impact
0,09Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Georges, N., 2006. Note sur deux nouvelles espèces de Chenopodiaceae adventices en Lorraine : Bassia scoparia (L.) Voss et Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. Willemetia 48: 1-4. [PDF]
  • Krippel, Y. & G. Colling, 2016. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2014-2015). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 118 : 27-51.
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB]
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2020. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2018-2019). Bulletin Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122 : 29-55. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-02]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-02]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021 [Unpublished manuscript]. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. MNHNL & Naturpark Öewersauer.
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Verloove, F., 2006. Atriplex micrantha, een nieuwe neofyt langs belangrijke verkeerswegen in België. Dumortiera 88: 15-20.
  • Weicherding, F.-J., 2007. Zur Verbreitung und Soziologie der adventiven Melden Atriplex micrantha Ledeb. (Verschiedensamige Melde), Atriplex sagittata Borkh. (Glanz-Melde) und Atriplex oblongifolia Waldst. et Kit. (Langblättrige Melde) (Chenopodiaceae) im Saarland und in angrenzenden Gebieten. Abh. Delattinia 33: 117-139.
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2019. Seite „Verschiedensamige Melde“ in Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie. Bearbeitungsstand: 1. Mai 2019, 23:11 UTC. URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verschiedensamige_Melde&oldid=188124273 [accessed 23 October 2019]

http://euromed.luomus.fi/euromed_map.php?taxon=544848&amp;size=medium

 Page content last updated on 2021-03-02. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-13.

Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq

English Billard’s bridewort Status LU: established. 1st record: LU <1875, ITW 1949.
Lëtzebuergesch Billard-Kluddertrausch Status Eur.: established. 1st record: ?
Français Spirée de billard RA: ISEIA: B1, Watch List. Harmonia+: 0,00.
Deutsch Billards Spierstrauch Wikipedia: Wikipedia - Français - Spirée de billard | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Spiraea × billardii
Nederlands Billardspirea Back to the list of neophytes

[toc]

Brief description

Spierstrauch ZwieselSpiraea ×billardii Hérincq is a sterile horticultural hybrid between Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea douglasii Hook. It only reproduces clonally. It grows mainly in ruderal areas and in riparian habitats. Plant habitat preferences are poorly known so far.

S. billardii is a fast-growing rhizomatous species, propagating clonally. As for other Spiraea species, it may easily form dense monospecific thickets smothering native vegetation. It is not known, however, if it has the capacity to inhibit plant successions like S. alba (Branquart et al. 2010).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021-05-17.

Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq was first mentioned for Luxembourg by Koltz (1875: 66) in the section about S. salicifolia. We thus consider the first record to be anterior to 1875 (Ries & Krippel 2021).

François Léon Lefort (1917-1975) first documented the species in the wild on 1949-08-03 “along the Ernz Blanche downstream of Medernach, 300 m from the road to Diekirch”  (Herb. LUX specimen № 21985; MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 5 records of Billard’s bridewort are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

This horticultural species is often grown for ornamental purposes in parks and gardens. Subspontaneous or naturalised: old hedges, roadsides, embankments, wastelands (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 326).

This Spiraea is by far the most widespread in the wild. However, the identity of the plant remains debatable: some authors distinguish Spiraea ×billardii (very pale pink corolla; narrowly conical inflorescence) and Spiraea ×Silverside Silverside (Spiraea douglasii × salicifolia) (bright pink corolla; subcylindrical inflorescence; leaf blade more regularly toothed, almost to the base), which would be much more common. However, the recognition of these two taxa seems difficult and therefore S. billardii is sometimes treated in a broad sense as a hybridogenic species that is more or less variable (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 326).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

B1 (2+2+3+2) = Watch List, reassessed on 24 January 2019 by C. Ries and M. Pfeiffenschneider. Original assessment: B0 (2+2+3+2) = Alert List (Ries et al. 2013: 19).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,00 = (Overall Invasion score 0,00 x Overall Impact score 0,43) (Ries et al. 2020).

Overall risk score 0,00 = (Overall Invasion score 0,00 x Overall Impact score 0,43) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,00Invasion
0,43Impact
0,00Risk

Worldwide distribution

No worldwide distribution map available at CABI or GBIF (2020-03-04).

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., P. Dupriez, S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq. Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-15]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq observed on 1949-08-03, occurrence ID DSS00439000013HF, via https://mdata.mnhn.lu [accessed 2021-03-12].
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Spiraea ×billardii Hérincq in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021 [Unpublished manuscript]. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. MNHNL & Naturpark Öewersauer.
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2021-03-12. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-21.

Solidago gigantea Ait.

English Tall goldenrod Status LU: established. 1st record: LU & ITW 1882.
Lëtzebuergesch Riseg Goldrutt Status Eur.: established. 1st record: ~1700. 1
Français Verge d’or géante RA: ISEIA: A2, Black List. Harmonia+: 0,26.
Deutsch Riesen-Goldrute Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Tall goldenrod Wikipedia - Français - Verge d'or géante Wikipedia - Deutsch - Riesen-Goldrute Wikipedia - Nederlands - Late guldenroede | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Solidago gigantea | CABI
Nederlands Late guldenroede Back to the list of neophytes

[toc]

Brief description

Solidago gigantea (subsp. serotina) sl20Solidago gigantea Ait. can grow in a wide range of soil conditions but is not shade-tolerant. The plant is found in many disturbed and nitrogen-rich sites such as ruderal areas, fallow lands, abandoned fields, river banks, etc. and also colonises humid grasslands. It can build up dense and long-lasting populations and easily outcompete native plants, including tree seedlings. Competitive ability is favoured by allelopathic interactions. Once established, the plant may remain dominant for a long period of time and often prevents natural colonisation by woody species (Branquart et al. 2010).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Solidago gigantea Ait. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021-05-17.

The oldest herbarium specimen at the MNHNL was collected in 1882 by Jean Feltgen (1833-1904) in a hedge near the village of Angelsberg (Specimen № 15568, MNHNL 2000-). This specimen was labeled Solidago canadensis L. and later verified as Solidago gigantea var. serotina (O. Kunze) Cronq..

The next oldest herbarium specimen at the MNHNL was collected under its synonym Solidago serotina Ait. on 1887-09-08 by Jean Feltgen (1833-1904) in a garden (“jardin Bosseler”) in Mersch (Specimen № 15601, MNHNL 2000-). The next record is a herbarium specimen collected by Jos Witry on 15 July 1937 in gardens in Rumelange (Specimen № 50850, MNHNL 2000-).

Léopold Reichling (1921-2009) reported the species on 1960-09-22 in several locations of the Grund district in Luxembourg City (Bock, Stierchen, Breedewee) (MNHNL 2000-).

Currently, 78 records of tall goldenrod are accessible through the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2019).

This melliferous species native to North America is naturalised in Europe: fairly common to fairly rare, present in waterfronts, forest edges, wastelands, wastelands; often in large stands (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 703).

This species includes populations in North America with variable chromosome numbers. Naturalised plants in Europe have generally been reported to Solidago gigantea subsp. serotina (O. Kuntze) McNeill, still known to be tetraploid. The question remains, however, whether Solidago gigantea subsp. gigantea, diploid, also exists in Europe, and especially whether the two taxa are morphologically identifiable. The problem remains to be studied in the wild (Lambinon & Verloove 2012: 703).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

A2 (3+2+3+3) = Black List (Ries et al. 2013: 19).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,20 = (Overall Invasion score 0,63 x Overall Impact score 0,42) (Ries et al. 2020).

0,63Invasion
0,42Impact
0,20Risk

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Branquart, E., S. Vanderhoeven, W. Van Landuyt, F. Van Rossum & F. Verloove, 2010. Harmonia database: Solidago gigantea Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: http://ias.biodiversity.be [accessed on 2019-10-15]
  • CABI, 2019. Solidago gigantea. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-04]
  • Lambinon J. & F. Verloove, 2012. Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du grand-duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines. Sixième édition. Avec la collaboration de L. Delvosalle, B. Toussaint, D. Geerinck, I. Hoste, F. Van Rossum, B. Cornier, R. Schumacker, A. Vanderpoorten et H. Vannerom. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise. CXXXIX + 1195 pp. ISBN : 9789072619884.
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Solidago gigantea Aiton in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2019. Solidago gigantea Aiton in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2019-10-15]
  • Ries, C. & Y. Krippel, 2021 [Unpublished manuscript]. First records of 56 invasive alien vascular plants in Luxembourg. MNHNL & Naturpark Öewersauer.
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2020. Risk assessment after the Harmonia+ protocol of invasive alien vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 122: 197-205. [PDF 132 KB]
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2021-03-11. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-21.