Plantago coronopus L.

English Buck’s-horn plantain Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 2014, ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn.
Français Plantain corne-de-cerf RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Krähenfuß-Wegerich Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Deutsch Français Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Hertshoornweegbree Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Plantago coronopus L. is an annual or perennial herbaceous plant that reaches heights of 5 to 25 centimetres, flowering from June to September. It mainly grows on sandy or gravelly soils close to the sea, but also on salt-treated roadsides. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa but it can be found elsewhere, including the United States, Australia, and New Zealand as an introduced species (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Plantago coronopus L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Plantago coronopus L. is a rather new species for the Luxembourg flora, observed for the first time in 2014 in Kirchberg, in the flowerbeds along avenue Kennedy, between the roundabout and the shopping centre (Krippel et al 2018). During an inventory of halophytes in roadside habitats in 2017 and 2018,  the presence of Plantago coronopus was documented for the first time along national roads. A relatively high number of individuals was found on the verges of two motorways: A1 (2017, Potaschbierg) and A6 (2018, Croix de Gasperich). Further findings were located near Wasserbillig (2018, Park and Ride parking “Mesenich” and Diekirch (2018, parking rue de l’industrie) (Ehl et al 2019).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2012. Plantago coronopus. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2023-01-31]
  • Ehl, S., K. Mildenberger, T. Frankenberg & C. Ries, 2019. Halophytes in roadside habitats: a survey of salt-tolerant vascular plant species along roads in Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 37-51. [PDF 24.03 MB]
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB].
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Plantago coronopus’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 June 2022, 20:20 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_coronopus> [accessed 2023-01-23]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-31.

Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl.

English Leatherleaf viburnum Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn.
Français Viorne à feuilles ridées RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Runzelblättriger Schneeball Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English Deutsch Français Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Sneeuwbal Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl. is a vigorous, coarsely textured evergreen shrub has an upright habit and 20 cm long, lustrous, deeply veined oval leaves with dark blue-green surfaces and pale green undersides. Plants grow 3.0 – 4.6 m tall and wide. The plant is an evergreen shrub or small tree with a suckering habit. Viburnum rhytidophyllum grows naturally in forests and shrubs at altitudes between 700 and 2.400 meters only in some Chinese provinces. It is commonly grown as an ornamental plant for its evergreen foliage and tolerance of deep shade. In countries where the species has been introduced as an ornemental plant, it seems to be spreading more and more near settlements in recent years. It potentially can displace native species and also causes health issues (Wikipedia contributors 2022, Gigon 2012).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

A specimen of Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl. from Rumelange can be found in the herbarium of Joseph Witry (25 May 1936). The herbarium of the National museum of natural history contains another cultivated specimen from Esch/Alzette (6 June 1959). As of January 2023, most of the occurences documented in the database Recorder-Lux are found in urban areas, in private gardens or parks. But V. rhytidophyllum has also been found in the wild: next to the A.7 in the Grunewald area, in a vineyard near Wellenstein as well as in forest areas close to Manternach and west of Echternach.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Viburnum rhytidophyllum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2023-01-25]
  • Gigon, A. (2012): Ersatz-Pflanzenarten für die unerwünschten gebietsfremden Arten (invasive Neophyten) der Schwarzen und der Beobachtungsliste der Schweiz. 2012 (infoflora.ch [PDF]).
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Viburnum rhytidophyllum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 28 November 2022, 10:26 UTC, <https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runzelblättriger_Schneeball> [accessed 2023-01-30]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-31.

Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897

English Quagga mussel Status LU: n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: established.
Français Moule quagga RA: ISEIA: n/a. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Quagga-Dreikantmuschel Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Zebra mussel Wikipedia - Français - Moule zébrée Wikipedia - Deutsch - Zebramuschel Nederlands | Wikispecies: n/a | CABI
Nederlands Quagga mussel Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

The quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis, also known as Dreissena bugensis or Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) is a species (or subspecies) of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Dreissenidae. It has an average lifespan of 3 to 5 years. The species is indigenous to the Dnieper River drainage of Ukraine, and is named after the quagga, an extinct subspecies of African zebra. The invasive quagga mussel is currently of major concern as it spreads in the rivers and lakes of Europe and also in the Great Lakes of North America.

Quagga mussels are presumed to have originated in the Ukrainian section of the Black Sea. The expansion of its range in Europe began only after 1940 and likely was associated with construction of interbasin canals and creation of impoundments along the large European rivers. Today, they are an invasive species found throughout western Europe. In Germany, quagga mussels were first identified in 2005, and now populate many inland waters, such as the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, the Main, and the Rhine. They were first identified in Switzerland in 2015 and in Lake Constance in 2016, where they have since spread massively and caused considerable problems, in particular to the machinery in waterworks. In 2014, the species was reported at Wraysbury Reservoir, not far from London’s Heathrow Airport in the valley of the River Thames. In Ireland, the mussels were first discovered in 2021 in two lakes on the River Shannon: Lough Derg and Lough Ree.

The mussel is expected to compete with existing zebra mussels and native species. Due to these biological traits, Dreissena spp. can substantially affect the environment, food webs and biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade, and cause tremendous economic damage in raw water-using industries, potable water treatment plants, and electric power stations. This species was identified as the top ranking invasive species threat to the UK in a study of almost 600 non-native species (CABI 2014, Wikipedia contributors 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

In Luxembourg, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897 has not been documented yet.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2014. Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2023-01-23]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Dreissena rostriformis bugensis‘, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 November 2022, 22:31 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quagga_mussel> [accessed 2023-01-23]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-23.

Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787)

English Lime seed bug Status LU: established. 1st record: 2019.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: established. 1st record: n/a.
Français Punaise du tileul RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Lindenwanze Wikipedia: English Deutsch Nederlands | Wikispecies: Wikispecies |
Nederlands Lindenspitskop Back to the list of neozoa

Brief description

Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) can reach a length of 4.5–5.4 millimetres in adult females, and 4.2–5 millimetres in males. Adult bugs are mostly red, white and black colored. The head, the entire prothorax, the scutellum and the antennae are black. The nymphs can be easily recognized by their black head and the red-colored abdomen.There are usually two annual generations. These bugs are found on and feed upon plants in the family Malvaceae, such as Tilia, Althea, Hibiscus, and Malva.

The original range of the lime bug is the western Mediterranean, including western North Africa and the Canary Islands. The original range in Europe is given as: the Iberian Peninsula, France, north to Aquitaine and Haute-Vienne, almost all of Italy, marginally to Ticino and South Tyrol, and the northwest of the Balkan Peninsula. Since about the mid-1990s, the species began to spread northward and eastward from here. By 2000, Hungary (1994), Slovakia (1995) and Bulgaria were reached, and Austria in 2001. The first German record, from the Upper Rhine plain, dates from 2004, from where the species spread rapidly northward in the Rhine valley. Isolated findings in England, the Netherlands and Finland are based on introduced animals, the species could not establish itself here so far. In northern Germany the species has been detected in Berlin in 2019. In Switzerland, mass occurrences are already reported for 2005. Towards the east, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania were colonized. Meanwhile, the species also occurs in northern France, as far as Normandy.

In the fall, the bugs congregate on trunks and branches of lime trees, where they form colonies. The mass appearance of these bugs is observed quite often. The bug is considered an invasive pest in some countries (Wikipedia contributors, 2023).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Observations of the species in Luxembourg exist since 2019, when it was documented in the City of Luxembourg (Bonnevoie) as well as in the Moselle valley (Grevenmacher, Remerschen), in Rosport-Hoelt and Mondorf-les-Bains (Schneider 2020).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

Bibliography

  • Schneider, N., 2020. Premières mentions d’Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787), de Tropidothorax leucopterus (Goeze, 1778) et de Stephanitis takeyai Drake & Maa, 1955 (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) au Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 122: 99-102. [PDF 387 KB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2023. ‘Oxycarenus lavaterae‘, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 12 January 2023, 12:31 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/>Oxycarenus lavaterae> [accessed 2023-01-23]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2023. ‘Oxycarenus lavaterae‘, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 28 November 2020, 08:34 UTC, <https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/>Lindenwanze> [accessed 2023-01-23]

 

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-23.

Obama nungara Carbayo, Álvarez-Presas, Jones, Riutort 2016

 

English n/a Status LU: unknown.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: established.
Français n/a RA: not yet assessed. Harmonia+: not yet assessed.
Deutsch n/a Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Brown bullhead Deutsch Français Nederlands  | Wikispecies: n/a
Nederlands Grote gevlekte landplatworm Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Obama nungara Carbayo, Álvarez-Presas, Jones, Riutort 2016 is a medium-sized land planarian with a lanceolate body, being up to 70 millimetres long. The species is native from South America. Populations in the two southernmost Brazilian states, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul are most certainly native. The species is also found in Argentina, where it may be native or introduced. It is very common in human-disturbed areas, especially gardens and parks.

Obama nungara was probably introduced to Europe through the plant trade. Since 2008, a large land planarian has been found in several localities in Europe, including Guernsey, Great Britain, France, Spain, Italy and, more recently, Belgium, the Netherlands and Slovakia. It was identified as possibly of Neotropical origin and belonging to the genus Obama, but its true identity was not resolved at first. In a study published in 2020, Obama nungara was recorded from Italy, Switzerland, and 72 of the 96 Departments of Metropolitan France. The species was especially abundant along the Atlantic coast, from the Spanish border to Brittany, and along the Mediterranean coast, from the Spanish border to the Italian border. More than half of the records were from an altitude below 50 m, and no record was from above 500 m. However, in 2019, a specimen was found on São Miguel Island (Azores) at an altitude of 947 meters.

Local abundance in continental Europe was considered impressive, with hundreds of specimens found in a small garden. On the basis of a molecular analysis, the study also concluded that the population which has invaded several countries in Europe came from Argentina, not Brazil.

Obama nungara is a predatory flatworm that actively hunts earthworms and snails. Because of its hunting behaviour and its wide distribution, it might be the most dangerous land planarian for biodiversity and soil ecology in Europe. It has no natural predators in Europe (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Obama nungara has not been documented in Luxembourg yet.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-23. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Aromia bungii (Faldermann, 1835)

English Red-Necked Longhorn Beetle Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: 2008
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Moschusbockkâfer Wikipedia: | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neozoa

Brief description

Aromia bungii (Faldermann, 1835) is native across the south-eastern Palaearctic and Oriental regions. It is recorded from China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. A. bungii is an oligophagous species; its host range is largely limited to Prunus spp.. The species has entered Europe several times with international trade. The first detection in Europe was in 2008 when three adults were intercepted among wooden pallets in a warehouse in Bristol, UK. The larvae of A. bungii grow inside hosting trees by consuming the wood. Several generations can develop within an individual tree, leading to its death. The beetle presents a significant risk to all stone fruit-growing countries in Europe and neighbouring countries (CABI 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Aromia bungii (Faldermann, 1835) in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Aromia bungii (Faldermann, 1835) has not yet been recorded in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2014. Aromia bungii (red necked longicorn) In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org [accessed 2023-01-20]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-23.

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud.

English Chinese empress tree Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn.
Français Paulownia impérial RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Blauglockenbaum Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Anna-paulownaboom Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud., common names princess tree, empress tree, or foxglove-tree, is a deciduous hardwood tree in the family Paulowniaceae, native to central and western China. It is an extremely fast-growing tree with seeds that disperse readily. In the US, the species is a showy, aggressive ornamental. It is also grown in plantations for timber production, but has tended to escape and invade, growing rapidly in disturbed areas including habitats for rare plants. It seeds profusely and resprouts from roots and stumps forming monocultures, and is proving to be a problem weed in eastern USA. It continues to be promoted, however, in North America and elsewhere, and it is possible that it could prove invasive in Europe where it continues to be introduced and planted. (CABI 2019, Wikipedia contributors 2022). The tree has been given the status of a potentially invasive species in Germany and is on the grey list of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) and is thus under observation (www.neobiota.de).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.)Steud. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. was introduced to Luxembourg in 1842 (Welter et al. 2008). 18 occurences have been documented in Luxembourg between 2008 and 2022.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Paulownia tomentosa. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-23]
  • Bundesamt für Naturschutz BfN, Invasivitätsbewertung gebietsfremder Gefäßpflanzen. URL: https://neobiota.bfn.de/invasivitaetsbewertung/gefaesspflanzen.html [accessed 2023-01-20]
  • Welter A., Turk J., Trossen J., 2008. – Les arbres introduits au Luxembourg. Inventaire des essences arborescentes non indigènes de pleine terre présentes sur le territoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Ferrantia 53, Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, 111 p
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Paulownia tomentosa’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 18 July 2022, 18:50 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paulownia_tomentosa> [accessed 2022-08-23]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-20.

Impatiens capensis Meerb.

English Orange jewelweed Status LU: n/a. 1st record: unkn., ITW n/a.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn.
Français Impatiente du Cap RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch n/a Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies
Nederlands Oranje springzaad Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Impatiens capensis Meerb., common names orange jewelweed, common jewelweed, spotted jewelweed, spotted touch-me-not or orange balsam is an annual plant which is native to North America. It is common in bottomland soils, ditches, and along creeks. Jewelweed is an herbaceous plant that grows 1 to 1,5 meters tall and blooms from late spring to early fall. The flowers are orange (sometimes blood orange or rarely yellow) with a three-lobed corolla. It often branches extensively. The round stems are smooth and succulent and semi-translucent, with swollen or darkened nodes on some plants. The leaves are alternate and simple and have teeth on the margins. Impatiens capensis was transported in the 19th and 20th centuries to England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Finland, and potentially other areas of northern and central Europe. This jewelweed species is quite similar to Impatiens noli-tangere, an impatiens species native to Europe and Asia (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Impatiens capensis Meerb. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

The first documented observation of the species in Luxembourg was made by Carlo Braunert in October 2021 on the banks of the Moselle river in Machtum – Deisermillen.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

 

Bibliography

  • Krippel, Y. & T. Helminger, 2022. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2020-2021). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 124: 191-222. [PDF 2,7 MB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Impatiens capensis’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 3 September 2022, 1:50 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impatiens_capensis> [accessed 2022-09-13]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-20.

Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906

English Crayfish plague Status LU: unknown, 1st record LU 1880, ITW: 1880
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: established, 1st record 1859 (Italy)
Français Peste de l’écrevisse RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Krebspest Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Rivierkreeftenplaag Back to the list of neomyceta

Brief description

Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906 is a water mold that infects freshwater crayfish. It is the cause of crayfish plague that can provoke the death of the infected individuals. Transport of signal crayfish, red swamp crayfish and infected native European freshwater crayfish between waters is the main cause of contamination, though the disease can also be spread via items that have been in contact with contaminated water, such as a fishing tackle or footwear. The spores are sensitive to high or low temperatures.

The natural range of A. astaci is likely to be North America. It has been found in North American crayfish sampled in North America. Any occurrence of A. astaci outside of North America is currently considered as an exotic appearance of the pathogen. Crayfish plague first arrived in Europe in Italy in 1859, either with imported crayfish from North America or in ballast water discharge. After its original introduction in Italy, it spread quickly through Europe and was discovered for example in France in 1874, in Germany in 1877, in Luxembourg and Belgium around 1880, in Sweden in 1907, in Spain in 1972, in Great Britain in 1981 and in Ireland in 1987.(CABI 2022, Wikipedia contributors 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

There is no recent distribution data concerning Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906 in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2022. Aphanomyces astaci. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-11-14]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Crayfish plague’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crayfish_plague> [accessed 2022-11-14]

 Page content last updated on 2022-11-15.

Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl

English Tall annual willowherb Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 2021., ITW: 2021.
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: 1978.
Français Épilobe d’automne RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Kurzfrüchtiges Weidenröschen Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl.,  is a species of willowherb known by the common names tall willowherb, tall annual willowherb, panicled willowherb and tall fireweed. It is native to and widespread in North America, where it is a resident of varied open and woodland habitats. It has also been introduced to some areas in South America and Europe. E. brachycarpum is a tall glandular, hairy annual herb occasionally reaching two metres in height. The flower has four petals which may be so deeply notched that they look like four pairs. They are generally light purple or pink, with darker veining. The fruit is a capsule 1 to 3 centimetres long.

It grows in wasteland, disturbed areas, sunny sites, on stony ground. It is a pioneer species, in the process of establishing itself in Europe (Germany, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg,…). The distribution map from CABI as indicated here below is thus to be considered as incomplete. The plant seems to be spreading along roads and particularly railways. In its native range, it grows on dry or seasonally moist, often disturbed soil, in open woods, meadows, especially along roadsides, and riverbanks, up to an altitude of 3,300 m. (Wikipedia contributors 2022, Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2023-02-09.

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl. was recorded for the first time in Luxembourg in 2021 on a worksite in the locality of GrevelsA second record of the species was made in the same year on a worksite in Eschdorf.

The various populations of E. brachycarpum observed during that year have been found on fallow land that has been uncultivated for a maximum of three years and were linked to construction works around Esch-sur-Sûre (drinking water treatment plant and new SEBES pipeline) (Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Epilobium brachycarpum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Epilobium brachycarpum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilobium_brachycarpum> [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wolff, J.-P. & Y. Krippel, 2022. Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl (Onagraceae), une nouvelle espèce pour la flore du Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 124: 3-8. [PDF 5,13 MB]

 Page content last updated on 2023-01-23. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.