Impatiens capensis Meerb.

English Orange jewelweed Status LU: casual 1st record: 2021, ITW 2021.
Lëtzebuergesch Oranget Sprangkraut Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: unkn.
Français Impatiente du Cap RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Orangerotes Springkraut Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies
Nederlands Oranje springzaad Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Impatiens capensis Meerb., common names: orange jewelweed, common jewelweed, spotted jewelweed, spotted touch-me-not or orange balsam, is an annual plant which is native to North America. It is common in bottomland soils, ditches, and along creeks. Jewelweed is an herbaceous plant that grows 1 to 1,5 meters tall and blooms from late spring to early fall. The flowers are orange (sometimes blood orange or rarely yellow) with a three-lobed corolla. It often branches extensively. The round stems are smooth and succulent and semi-translucent, with swollen or darkened nodes on some plants. The leaves are alternate and simple and have teeth on the margins. Impatiens capensis was transported in the 19th and 20th centuries to England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Finland, and potentially other areas of northern and central Europe. This jewelweed species is quite similar to Impatiens noli-tangere, an impatiens species native to Europe and Asia (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Impatiens capensis Meerb. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2024-02-26.

The first documented observation of the species in Luxembourg was made by Carlo Braunert in October 2021 on the banks of the Moselle river in Machtum – Deisermillen (Krippel & Helminger 2022).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

 

Bibliography

  • Krippel, Y. & T. Helminger, 2022. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2020-2021). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 124: 191-222. [PDF 2,7 MB]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Impatiens capensis’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 3 September 2022, 1:50 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impatiens_capensis> [accessed 2022-09-13]

 Page content last updated on 2023-09-27. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2023-03-27.

Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906

English Crayfish plague Status LU: unknown, 1st record LU 1880, ITW: 1880
Lëtzebuergesch Kriibspescht Status Eur.: established, 1st record 1859 (Italy)
Français Peste de l’écrevisse RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Krebspest Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Rivierkreeftenplaag Back to the list of neomyceta

Brief description

Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906 is a water mold that infects freshwater crayfish. It is the cause of crayfish plague that can provoke the death of the infected individuals. Transport of signal crayfish, red swamp crayfish and infected native European freshwater crayfish between waters is the main cause of contamination, though the disease can also be spread via items that have been in contact with contaminated water, such as a fishing tackle or footwear. The spores are sensitive to high or low temperatures.

The natural range of A. astaci is likely to be North America. It has been found in North American crayfish sampled in North America. Any occurrence of A. astaci outside of North America is currently considered as an exotic appearance of the pathogen. Crayfish plague first arrived in Europe in Italy in 1859, either with imported crayfish from North America or in ballast water discharge. After its original introduction in Italy, it spread quickly through Europe and was discovered for example in France in 1874, in Germany in 1877, in Luxembourg and Belgium around 1880, in Sweden in 1907, in Spain in 1972, in Great Britain in 1981 and in Ireland in 1987.(CABI 2022, Wikipedia contributors 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906 in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2024-02-26.

There is no recent distribution data concerning Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906 in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2022. Aphanomyces astaci. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-11-14]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Crayfish plague’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crayfish_plague> [accessed 2022-11-14]

 Page content last updated on 2023-09-27.

Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl

English Tall annual willowherb Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 2021, ITW: 2021.
Lëtzebuergesch Kuerzfriichteg Weideréischen Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: 1978.
Français Épilobe d’automne RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Kurzfrüchtiges Weidenröschen Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Wijde basterdwederik Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl.,  is a species of willowherb known by the common names tall willowherb, tall annual willowherb, panicled willowherb and tall fireweed. It is native to and widespread in North America, where it is a resident of varied open and woodland habitats. It has also been introduced to some areas in South America and Europe. E. brachycarpum is a tall glandular, hairy annual herb occasionally reaching two metres in height. The flower has four petals which may be so deeply notched that they look like four pairs. They are generally light purple or pink, with darker veining. The fruit is a capsule 1 to 3 cm long.

It grows in wasteland, disturbed areas, sunny sites, on stony ground. It is a pioneer species, in the process of establishing itself in Europe (Germany, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg,…). The distribution map from CABI as indicated here below is thus to be considered as incomplete. The plant seems to be spreading along roads and particularly railways. In its native range, it grows on dry or seasonally moist, often disturbed soil, in open woods, meadows, especially along roadsides, and riverbanks, up to an altitude of 3300 m. (Wikipedia contributors 2022, Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2024-02-26.

Epilobium brachycarpum C.Presl. was recorded for the first time in Luxembourg in 2021 on a worksite in the locality of GrevelsA second record of the species was made in the same year on a worksite in Eschdorf.

The various populations of E. brachycarpum observed during that year have been found on fallow land that has been uncultivated for a maximum of three years and were linked to construction works around Esch-sur-Sûre (drinking water treatment plant and new SEBES pipeline) (Wolff & Krippel 2022).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Epilobium brachycarpum. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Epilobium brachycarpum’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilobium_brachycarpum> [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wolff, J.-P. & Y. Krippel, 2022. Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl (Onagraceae), une nouvelle espèce pour la flore du Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 124: 3-8. [PDF 5,13 MB]

 Page content last updated on 2023-09-27. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Amorpha fruticosa L.

English False indigo-bush Status LU: n/a. 1st record: 1934, ITW 1934.
Lëtzebuergesch Buschege Schäininnech Status Eur.: n/a. 1st record: .
Français Amorphe buissonnante RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Bastardindigo Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Bastaard indigostruik Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Amorpha fruticosa L. originates from North America and is cultivated as an ornamental. It was introduced in Europe from France to Russia (EPPO 2022). The fast-growing, deciduous shrub grows preferentially in wetlands, like riparian and alluvial habitats, sandy banks of ravines, coastal areas, and dunes. However, it tolerates some disturbed areas, such as plantations, orchards, meadows and urban areas. Due to its high reproductive capacity, A. fruticosa can form dense thickets that outcompete native flora, change successional patterns and reduce biodiversity. It is now generally accepted to be among the most invasive alien species in Europe. Repeated cutting and mowing can help to control populations of this species (CABI 2022). 

In 2014, Switzerland added the Fabaceae to its List of Invasive Alien Plants (EPPO 2022).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Amorpha fruticosa L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2024-02-26.

Amorpha fruticosa L. has been recorded for the first time in Luxembourg in 1934 in Noertzange (Herbier Witry).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

 

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Amorpha fruticosa. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-22]
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Amorpha fruticosa‘, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 9 August 2022, 01:26 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilobium_brachycarpum> [accessed 2022-08-22]

 Page content last updated on 2023-09-26. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque, 1820)

English Black bullhead Status LU: established. 1st record: 1892.
Lëtzebuergesch Schwaarzen Zwergwels1 Status Eur.: established.
Français Poisson-chat commun RA: not yet assessed. Harmonia+: not yet assessed.
Deutsch Schwarzer Zwergwels Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Brown bullhead Wikipedia - Français - Barbotte brune Wikipedia - Deutsch - Katzenwels Wikipedia - Nederlands - Bruine dwergmeerval | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Ameiurus nebulosus
Nederlands Zwarte dwergmeerval Back to the list of vertebrates

Brief description

Ameiurus melas L., the black bullhead or black bullhead catfish is a species of bullhead catfish. Like other bullhead catfish, it has the ability to thrive in waters that are low in oxygen, brackish, turbid and/or very warm. It also has barbels located near its mouth, a broad head, spiny fins, and no scales. It can be identified from other bullheads as the barbels are black, and it has a tan crescent around the tail. Its caudal fin is truncated (squared off at the corners). Like virtually all catfish, it is nocturnal, preferring to feed at night, although young feed during the day. It has a typical length of 8-14 in, with the largest specimen being 24 in, making it the largest of the bullheads. It is typically black or dark brown on the dorsal side of its body and yellow or white on the ventral side.

Like most of the bullheads it has a squared tail fin, which is strikingly different from the forked tail of channel and blue catfish. It is a bottom-rover fish, meaning it is well-adapted for bottom living.

The species, which is known to be invasive, was brought to Europe as early as the 19th century and later also spread through the aquarium trade. In warmer waters, the bullhead, which is tolerant of oxygen deficits and higher temperatures, often reproduces very strongly.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

In 1892, eight live specimens of Ameiurus melas L. were introduced in a pond near Diekirch. In 1996/1997, the species could not be detected during a systematic survey. In 1998, the black bullhead was documented by a recreational fisherman in the Moselle near Bech-Kleinmacher. In 2005, 2 adult and 300 juvenile bullheads were caught in the Moselle near Stadtbredimus during a systematic survey. A second breeding occurrence of about 500 individuals was observed in the same year in the marina near Schwebsange. The black bullhead has established itself as an independent population in the Luxembourgian Moselle (Administration de la Gestion de l’Eau 2010).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Administration de la gestion de l’eau, 2010. Les poissons au Luxembourg : Cartographie des poissons, lamproies et écrevisses du grand-duché de Luxembourg. 2e éd., 213 pp.

 Page content last updated on 2023-09-27. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

References
  1. Administration de la gestion de l’eau 2010: 166.[]

Pistia stratiotes L.

English Water lettuce Status LU: absent.
Lëtzebuergesch Waasserzalot Status Eur.: established. 1st record: <1850. IAS of EU concern (2022).
Français Laitue d’eau RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Wassersalat Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands Watersla Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Pistia stratiotes L., is often called water cabbage, water lettuce, Nile cabbage, or shellflower. Its native distribution is uncertain but is probably pantropical; it was first discovered from the Nile near Lake Victoria in Africa.It is now present, either naturally or through human introduction, in nearly all tropical and subtropical fresh waterways and is considered an invasive species as well as a mosquito breeding habitat. It floats on the surface of the water, its roots hanging submersed beneath floating leaves.

Water lettuce is among the world’s most productive freshwater aquatic plants and is considered an invasive species. The species can be introduced to new areas by water dispersal, fragmentation, and hitchhiking on marine transportation or fishing equipment. The invasion of Pistia stratiotes in the ecosystem can lead to environmental and socio-economic ramifications to the community it serves. In waters with high nutrient content, particularly those that have been contaminated with human loading of sewage or fertilizers, water lettuce can exhibit weedy overgrowth. It may also become invasive in hydrologically altered systems such as flood control canals and reservoirs. The severe overgrowth of water lettuce can block gas exchange in the surface water, creating hypoxic conditions and eliminating or disrupting various native marine organisms. Blocking access to sunlight, large mats of water lettuce can shade native submerged plants and alter communities relying on these native plants as a source of food. The growth of these mats can also get tangled in boat propellers and create challenges for boaters or recreational fishermen. (Wikipedia contributors 2022).

IAS of Union concern

Pistia stratiotes was first introduced into Europe in the 19th century (Loudon et al. 1850). The first published record of its presence in the wild dates to 1973 in the water canals of the Netherlands (Mennema 1977). An historic overview is given by Živković et al. 2019.

In 2022, Pistia stratiotes L. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2022) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Pistia stratiotes L. has not yet been recorded in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

    • Anonymous, 2022. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1203 of 12 July 2022 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 to update the list of invasive alien species of Union concern. Official Journal of the European Union L 186: 10 – 13 (13.7.2022).
    • CABI, 2010. Pistia stratiotes. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-19]
    • Loudon JC, Loudon J, Don G, Lindley J, Greville RK, 1850. Loudon’s Hortus Britannicus: A Catalogue of All the Plants Indigenous, Cultivated In, Or Introduced to Britain. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, UK, 735 pp.
    • Mennema J., 1977. Is waterlettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) becoming a new aquatic weed in the Netherlands. Natura, Netherlands 74: 187–190.
    • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Pistia stratiotes’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pistia> [accessed 2022-08-19]
    • Živković et al., 2019. Pistia stratiotes – a new invasive alien species in Vojvodina (Serbia). BioInvasions Records 8(2): 218–229, https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.2019.8.2.03

 Page content last updated on 2023-09-27. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal

English Himalayan knotweed Status LU: absent.
Lëtzebuergesch Himalaya-Knuetkraut Status Eur.: established. 1st record: 1898. IAS of EU concern (2022).
Français Renouée de l’Himalaya RA: ISEIA: n/a Harmonia+: n/a
Deutsch Himalaja-Knöterich Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English | Wikispecies: Wikispecies | CABI
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of neophytes

Brief description

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M. Schust. & Reveal, commonly known as Himalayan knotweed is a species of flowering plant in the knotweed family. The species is native to Asia (southwestern China, Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Afghanistan) and it is planted in many places as an ornamental. It has the capacity to become an invasive species and has established itself in some parts of North America, primarily the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada, as well as in the UK and Belgium. It is an invasive weed in the mountains of Sri Lanka.

Koenigia polystachya is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing thick, hollow, erect stems easily exceeding one metre (40 inches) in length. Via its rhizomes it can form dense colonies. It may also spread asexually if sections of the stem containing rooting nodes are separated and moved to a new area; chopping the plant into small pieces does not necessarily keep it from growing. The hairy leaves are up to 20 centimetres (8 inches) long. The branching inflorescence is an array of lacy clusters of many small white flowers. Called thothnay in Sikkim and Darjeeling areas of India, the pleasantly sour-tasting edible shoots and stems are used as a vegetable or used to make piquant condiments and accompaniments for meals. (Wikipedia contributors 2021).

IAS of Union concern

First recorded in Europe in 1898 in Ostende (Groom 2011).

In 2022, Koenigia polystachyaetaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. was added to the list of invasive alien species of Union concern (Anonymous 2022) which implies that member states shall take all necessary steps to prevent its unintentional introduction or spread.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Koenigia polystachya (Wall. ex Meisn.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal has not yet been recorded in Luxembourg.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Not assessed yet.

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • Anonymous, 2022. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2022/1203 of 12 July 2022 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 to update the list of invasive alien species of Union concern. Official Journal of the European Union L 186: 10-13 (2022-07-13).
  • CABI, 2010. Persicaria wallichii. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2022-08-19]
  • Groom, Q., 2011. Rubrivena polystachya (Wall. ex Meissner) M. Král in: Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium. Botanic Garden Meise, Belgium. At: alienplantsbelgium.be [accessed 2023-09-27] https://alienplantsbelgium.myspecies.info/content/rubrivena-polystachya
  • Wikipedia contributors, 2022. ‘Koenigia polystachya’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 September 2019, 08:25 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koenigia_polystachya> [accessed 2022-08-19]

 Page content last updated on 2023-09-27. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2022-09-06.

Leiobunum sp.

English n/a Status LU: established. 1st record: ?
Lëtzebuergesch n/a Status Eur.: established. 1st record: ~2000 (NL).
Français n/a RA: ISEIA: C2. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Namenloser Rückenkanker Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Leiobunum Wikipedia - Deutsch - Namenloser Rückenkanker Nederlands | Wikispecies: n/a (2020)
Nederlands n/a Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Mainz fg03Since probably 2000, a completely unknown harvestman started its quick expansion through Central Europe. The species could be classified in the genus Leiobunum, but is different from other European species. It has been named provisionally as Leiobunum sp. (sensu Wijnhoven et al. 2007). It is assumed that it arrived with ships from overseas, probably reaching the Netherlands first. It is still unknown exactly where it came from (Wijnhoven et al. 2007).

The area of origin is unknown to date, since about 2000 the species has probably spread from the Netherlands into Western Germany on both sides of the Rhine valley to Switzerland and Vorarlberg (Wijnhoven et al. 2007), in the meantime also to Schleswig-Holstein (Staudt 2012).

Habitat: Primarily possibly a rock dweller, in Europe in habitats of anthropogenic origin: industrial wastelands, ruins and house walls (Wijnhoven et al. 2007). Leiobunum sp. generally tend to cluster together during the day. This behaviour is even more pronounced in the species in question. Mass aggregations of several hundreds of individuals have been observed. Many observations show that in spite of its high reproduction rate this “new” Leiobunum sp. seems to coexist well with indigenous species and integrates in the native fauna without great damage. But surely great colonies of the species compete for food with other similar predators.

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Leiobunum sp. in Luxembourg. Source: Muster & Meyer 2014: 80.

No records of Leiobunum sp. (sensu Wijnhoven et al. 2007) are present in the MNHNL-mdata portal (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020).

Already widespread in the Gutland, Leiobunum sp. still largely absent in the Ösling (Muster & Meyer 2014: 79). In Luxembourg exclusively synanthropic, larger aggregations have so far only been observed on industrial ruins in the Minette area, in small numbers of individuals in many places on average house walls.

Remarks (Muster & Meyer 2014: 82): Due to the occurrence of mass aggregations with > 1000 specimens the species became the focus of media and sensation-hungry public after 2007. Suddenly, weavers were the focus of exhibitions, local publications, radio and television broadcasts. Wijnhoven et al. (2007) also warned urgently of an imminent invasion of unprecedented proportions and possible dramatic effects on the native opilionid fauna. A few years after this initial uncertainty, the situation is now much more relaxed. Despite the now widespread distribution in Luxembourg, no mass increases could be registered. Only in the former Goodyear test site near Esch-sur-Alzette and at industrial ruins near Rodange larger colonies of 100-200 specimens were sighted. Otherwise only smaller groups of maximum 10 specimens were observed, often only single specimens. It was noticeable that often only one dwelling house per small village was inhabited, while other similar houses remained unoccupied. In this context, observations from the Ruhr area seem interesting, according to which the animals show a preference for calcareous surfaces rich in structure (Toss 2010). The effects on other weaver’s apprentice species are also likely to be less severe than originally assumed. Leiobunum rotundum is often found at or even within aggregations of the Nameless Spine Anchor, while they even seem to evade Dicranopalpus ramosus (Wijnhoven 2011).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C2 (2+2+2+1) (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Bibliography

  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [Accessed 2020-03-05]
  • Muster, C. & M. Meyer, 2014. Verbreitungsatlas der Weberknechte des Großherzogtums Luxemburg, Ferrantia 70. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg, 112 S. [pp. 79-82] (PDF 3.8 MB)
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]
  • Staudt, A., 2012. Nachweiskarten der Spinnentiere Deutschlands (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones). http://www.spiderling.de/arages/
  • Toss, K., 2010. Auffällig unauffällig: Der bislang unbestimmte Weberknecht der Gattung Leiobunum ist im westlichen Ruhrgebiet weit verbreitet. Elektronische Aufsätze der Biologischen Station Westliches Ruhrgebiet 19: 1-5.
  • Wijnhoven, H., A.L. Schönhofer & J. Martens, 2007. An unidentified harvestman Leiobunum sp. alarmingly invading Europe (Arachnida: Opiliones). Arachnol. Mitt. 34: 27-38. (https://www.natur-in-nrw.de/Download/Martens_Leiobunum_2007.pdf)

 Page content last updated on 2020-03-05. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-10.

Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894)

English Killer shrimp Status LU: present. 1st record: 2006.
Lëtzebuergesch Killercrevette Status Eur.: established.
Français Crevette tueuse RA: ISEIA: A1, Black List. Harmonia+: n/a.
Deutsch Großer Höckerflohkrebs Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Killer shrimp Wikipedia - Français - Crevette tueuse Wikipedia - Deutsch - Großer Höckerflohkrebs Nederlands | Wikispecies: n/a (2020)
Nederlands Pontokaspische Vlokreeft Back to the list of invertebrates

Brief description

Dikerogammarus villosus (8740859563)Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) is a freshwater amphipod originating from the Ponto-Caspian region. Its range expansion began in the late twentieth century and was associated with re-opening of the shipping canal between the Danube River and Main River (Vaate et al., 2002). Large body size, extremely voracious predatory behaviour, high fecundity and wide environmental tolerance make this amphipod a very successful invader of European waters. Invasion of D. villosus often results in significant local reduction or even extinction of native amphipods and other macroinvertebrates on which it preys (CABI 2019).

D. villosus is included on the list of the 100 most invasive exotic species of Europe (Devin & Beisel 2009).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) was first recorded in 2006: several specimen collected on 2006-05-12 in the river Moselle near Stadtbredimus were discovered in the Museums collections in July 2021 (Weigand in litt.). Another observation was made on 2018-06-20 in the river Sure near Wasserbillig / Langsur (MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF 2021). Accordingly, the Killer shrimp has been moved from the Alert List (Ries et al. 2017: 68) to the Black List.

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

Following the discovery of the Killer shrimp in July 2021 in the Museums collections (Weigand in litt.), the species was reassessed on 2021-07-29 to A1 (3+2+3+3) = Black List by C. Ries. Initial assessment: A0 (3+2+3+3) = Alert List (Ries et al. 2017: 68).

Harmonia+ protocol

Not assessed yet.

Worldwide distribution

Bibliography

  • CABI, 2019. Dikerogammarus villosus. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. URL: www.cabi.org/isc [accessed 2020-03-13]
  • Devin, S. & J.-N. Beisel, 2009. Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky), killer shrimp (Gammaridae, Crustacea). In: Handbook of alien species in Europe. Springer, 309.
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2021. Dikerogammarus villosus in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: https://mdata.mnhn.lu [accessed 2020-03-13]
  • Ries, C., A. Arendt, C. Braunert, S. Christian, A. Dohet, A. Frantz, G. Geimer, M. Hellers, J. A. Massard, X. Mestdagh, R. Proess, N. Schneider & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2017. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of invertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 119: 63-70. [PDF 360 KB]

 Page content last updated on 2021-07-29. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-12-10.