Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev.

English Giant hogweed ISEIA: A3 – Black List. IAS of EU concern.
Lëtzebuergesch Risebiereklo EASIN
Français Berce du Caucase, berce de Mantegazzi Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Giant hogweed Wikipedia - Français - Berce du Caucase Wikipedia - Deutsch - Riesen-Bärenklau Wikipedia - Nederlands - Reuzenberenklauw
Deutsch Riesen-Bärenklau, Herkulesstaude Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Giant hogweed
Nederlands Reuzenberenklauw, Perzische berenklauw Back to the list of neophytes

Report the species

Report Heracleum mantegazzianum to the National Museum of Natural History.

Importance and distribution in Luxembourg

Distribution map of Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev. in Luxembourg. Recorder-LUX & iNaturalist, 2019.08.21.

Giant hogweed has been introduced to Luxembourg by the Luxembourg botanist Edmond Joseph Klein (1866-1942) in 1935. The plant made his front garden an attraction for naturalists and bee keepers. Consequently, later populations in Luxembourg result from plantation by bee keepers.

Giant hogweed was getting very common and widespread in Luxembourg during the period 2000-2010. It generally occurred in small clusters along river banks, several major rivers of Luxembourg having been affected. Sometimes the species formed dense stands along rivers, bicycle ways and rail roads or on waste land. Since 2008 many stakeholders are involved in control measures resulting in the decline of the species, as shown in the most recent national survey on selected neophytes along major rivers in 2013. This might result in the downgrade of the ISEIA-code of the species (A3) in future risk assessments. While 575 observations are documented in the Recorder database (18/01/2018) only 46 of these observations have been made in the last four years.

Hybridisation

It is known that Heracleum mantegazzianum can hybridise with H. sphondylium (Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. and Lev. × H. sphondylium L. var. dissectum Le Gall). It has been reported twice from the north of the country (Krippel et al. 2018: 64).

Giant hogweed in flower.

Giant hogweed in flower.

Control in Luxembourg

Since 2008, the Luxembourg national water administration is systematically controlling giant hogweed on the river banks of the major rivers of Luxembourg and is running special units for this purpose.

The Upper Sure Nature Park in the north-west of Luxembourg (Ardennes) runs a monitoring and management plan on giant hogweed since 2009 in the frame of the national action plan “Heracleum mantegazzianum” (Krippel & Richarz 2013). The inventories show a prevalence of H. mantegazzianum populations in two valleys i.e. Harelerbaach and Dirbech, where the plants are growing predominately on riversides and alluvial meadows. Since 2009, the management plan is annually and consequently executed in the Upper-Sûre region and giant hogweed is controlled by root cutting and, in the case of flowering plants, by umbel removal. These simple mechanical methods show excellent results, but have to be continued for several years, until the soil seed bank is depleted, especially in the valleys of the Surbich and Harelerbaach (Krippel & Colling 2014, 2016; Krippel et al. 2018: 64).

Since 2009, after a sensitization campaign with the national nature and forest administration, several foresters systematically control giant hogweed in their areas.

Since 2010, the city of Luxembourg systematically controls hogweed on its grounds, especially along the Alzette river.

In 2012, three workers of the national railway company CFL were burned by giant hogweed while cleaning up an overgrown area of a railway station. A survey of several neophyte species on the national railway network (Pfeiffenschneider et al. 2014d) resulted in four sites with Heracleum which were controlled in the same year.

Burn cases in Luxembourg

The Department of Ecology of the National Museum of Natural History made two surveys amongst physicians in Luxembourg on burns caused in 2008 and in 2011 and 2012 (cf. Ries et al. 2013). Results showed that there have been at least 60 cases of burns in 2011 and 2012, while the previous survey back in 2008 resulted in no feedback on burn cases. These features are in line with the ongoing spreading of the species in that period in Luxembourg. Most victims were aged between 18 and 60 and have been affected by burns in summer. The severity of burns ranged from not severe to medium.

Special observations:

  • When controlling giant hogweed during full flowering, the dust generated during removal of the flowers can penetrate between the protective clothing and the throat of a worker and cause a line or strip of burned skin (Adm. de la gestion de l’eau, personal communication, 2013).
  • In 2013, children have suffered burns when fencing with withered, last year’s stems in early spring (Danièle Dammé, personal communication, May 20, 2014).

Useful documents

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol: A3 (3+3+2+3) = Black List (Ries et al. 2013: 18).

Bibliography concerning Luxembourg

  • Albers, M., S. Kohn, J. Steng & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2001. Problematik der Bioinvasion. Kartierung von Japan-Knöterich, Riesenbärenklau und Indischem Springkraut an Woltz, Clerve und Wiltz. Ergebnisse der Kartierung. Studie des Büros ERSA im Auftrag von: Administration des eaux & forêts, arrondissement nord. August 2001. 7S. + Anhang.
  • Glesener, B., M. Pfeiffenschneider & C. Ries, 2009. Die Verbreitung von Impatiens glandulifera, Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. ×bohemica und Heracleum mantegazzianum entlang der Hauptfließgewässer Luxemburgs. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 110 : 69-73. (pdf)
  • Krippel, Y. & F. Richarz, 2013. Verbreitung und Management von Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev. (Apiaceae, Spermatophyta) in der Obersauerregion in Luxemburg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 3-13. (pdf)
  • Krippel, Y. & G. Colling, 2014. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2012-2013).
    Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 115: 109-124.
  • Krippel, Y. & G. Colling, 2016. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2014-2015).
    Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 118: 27-51.
  • Krippel, Y., T. Helminger & G. Colling, 2018. Notes floristiques. Observations faites au Luxembourg (2016-2017). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 120: 57-76. [PDF 265 KB]
  • Pfeiffenschneider, M., 2001. Problematik der Bioinvasion. Nationales Inventar von Riesenbärenklau, Indischem Springkraut und exotischen Knötericharten. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage und Konzept zur Bekämpfung der Riesenbärenklaubestände. Studie des Büros ERSA im Auftrag von: Administration des eaux & forêts, Service de la conservation de la nature, November 2001. 23 S. + Anhang, Luxembourg.
  • Pfeiffenschneider, M., 2007. Über die Verbreitung von Heracleum mantegazzianum, Impatiens glandulifera, Fallopia japonica und F. sachali­nensis entlang der Gewässer Obersauer, Woltz, Clerve, Wiltz und ihrer Nebengewässer (Luxemburg). Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 108 : 7-10. (pdf)
  • Pfeiffenschneider, M., 2008. Neophyten in Luxemburg – Projekt Bioinvasion 2007. Arbeitsbericht. 18 S. (pdf)
  • Pfeiffenschneider, M., P. Gräser & C. Ries, 2014a. Distribution of selected neophytes along the main rivers of Luxembourg. Poster in 2 parts at XXXIe réunion annuelle des collaborateurs scientifiques du Musée national d’histoire naturelle Luxembourg, 15.03.2014. (pdf 2,7 MB)
  • Pfeiffenschneider, M., P. Gräser & C. Ries, 2014b. Distribution of selected neophytes along the national railway network of Luxembourg. Poster at XXXIe réunion annuelle des collaborateurs scientifiques du Musée national d’histoire naturelle Luxembourg, 15.03.2014. (pdf 1,4 MB)
  • Pfeiffenschneider, M., P. Gräser & C. Ries, 2014c. Distribution of selected neophytes along the main rivers of Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 115: 101-108. [PDF 3668 KB]
  • Pfeiffenschneider, M., P. Gräser & C. Ries, 2014d. Distribution of selected neophytes along the national railway network of Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 115: 95-100. [PDF 1457 KB]
  • Pfeiffenschneider, M. & M. Owaller, 2000. Kartierung von Japan-Knöterich, Riesenbärenklau und Indischem Springkraut an der Obersauer. Theoretische Grundlagen und Ergebnisse der Kartierung. Studie des Büros ERSA im Auftrag von: Administration des eaux & forêts, acrrondissement nord. August 2000. 37S. + Anhang, Luxembourg.
  • Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 KB]
  • Ries, C, Y. Steil & M. Pfeiffenschneider, 2013. Survey amongst physicians in Luxembourg on burns caused in 2011 and 2012 by the giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum SOMMIER & LEVIER, Apiaceae). Poster at XXXe réunion annuelle des collaborateurs scientifiques du Musée national d’histoire naturelle Luxembourg, 16.03.2013. (pdf 1,2 MB)

Suggested citation of this webpage

Ries, C. & M. Pfeiffenschneider (Eds.), 2019. Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev. In: neobiota.lu - Invasive Alien Species in Luxembourg. URL: https://neobiota.lu/heracleum-mantegazzianum/ [21.08.2019].

 Last updated on Tuesday, July 23, 2019.