Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758)

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English Mandarin duck Status LU: casual.
Lëtzebuergesch Mandarinint1 Status Eur.: established.
Français Canard mandarin RA: ISEIA: C1. Harmonia+: 0,10
Deutsch Mandarinente Wikipedia: Wikipedia - English - Mandarin duck Wikipedia - Français - Canard mandarin Wikipedia - Deutsch - Mandarinente Wikipedia - Nederlands - Mandarijneend | Wikispecies: Wikispecies - Aix galericulata
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Report the species

Report Aix galericulata to the National Museum of Natural History.

Brief description

Aix galericulata - Zürich - Hafen Riesbach 2011-01-14 15-58-32Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) is native to Asia but has become established in several European countries. The species, which breeds mainly in tree holes, shows a preference for pools, lakes, rivers and marshes surrounded by deciduous forest. Potential competition with hole-nesting vertebrates has been suggested. The European population is resident and might be of some importance for the conservation of the species (Anselin et al. 2011).

Status and distribution in Luxembourg

Records of Aix galericulata L. in Luxembourg. Data source: Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2024-07-14.

Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) was first documented on 15 March 1998 by Claude Heidt on a dam of the Alzette in the Grund district of Luxembourg City (MNHNL 2000-).

Risk assessment

ISEIA protocol

C0 (3+1+1+1); the species is considered as not established (Ries et al. 2014: 199).

Harmonia+ protocol

Overall risk score 0,10 = (Overall Invasion score 0,51 x Overall Impact score 0,21) (evaluated by Jean-Claude Heidt, Sandra Cellina and Tiago De Sousa).


Worldwide distribution


  • Anselin, A., E. Branquart, K. Devos, J.-Y. Paquet, D. Strubbe, D. Vangeluwe & A. Weiserbs, 2011. Harmonia database: Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758). Harmonia version 1.2, Belgian Forum on Invasive Species. URL: [accessed 2020-04-22]
  • GBIF, 2019. Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset [accessed 2020-04-21]
  • MNHNL, 2000-. Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) in Recorder-Lux, database on the natural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg. URL: [Accessed 2020-04-21]
  • MNHNL, iNaturalist & GBIF, 2020. Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) in MNHNL-mdata, online portal combining species observation from Recorder-Lux, iNaturalist and GBIF. National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg. URL: [Accessed 2020-04-21]
  • Ries, C., M. Pfeiffenschneider, Engel, E., J.-C. Heidt & M. Lauff, 2014. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of vertebrates in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 115: 195-201. [PDF 247 KB]
  • Weiss, J., 2015. Liste der Luxemburger Vogelnamen. Regulus Wissenschaftliche Berichte 29 (2014): 69-79. [PDF 1.1 MB]

 Page content last updated on 2024-03-06. Last proofread by Caroline Grounds on 2019-11-27.

  1. Cf. Weiss 2015: 73.[]