In botany, a neophyte is a plant species which is non-native to a geographical region, and was introduced in recent history. The term is derived from the Greek neo = new and phytos = plant. Archaeophytes are plants that are long-established in an area and are considered to have been first introduced prior to 1492, when Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas and the Columbian Exchange 1 began.

List of invasive alien vascular plants of Luxembourg concern

Species Family ISEIA index 2
Acer negundo Aceraceae C1
Ailanthus altissima Simaroubaceae C1
Ambrosia artemisiifolia Asteraceae C1
Amelanchier lamarckii Malaceae C1
Aster lanceolatus Asteraceae C1
Aster novi-belgii Asteraceae C1
Atriplex micrantha Amaranthaceae C2 3
Azolla filiculoides Azollaceae C1
Bidens frondosa Asteraceae C2
Buddleja davidii Buddlejaceae C2
Bunias orientalis Brassicaceae C1
Claytonia perfoliata Portulacaceae C1
Cochlearia danica Brassicaceae non ass.
Conyza canadensis Asteraceae C3
Cornus sericea Cornaceae C0
Cotoneaster horizontalis Malaceae C1
Crassula helmsii Crassulaceae B0
Duchesnea indica Rosaceae C1
Egeria densa Hydrocharitaceae A0
Elodea canadensis Hydrocharitaceae A3
Elodea nuttallii Hydrocharitaceae A3
Epilobium ciliatum Onagraceae B3
Epimedium alpinum Berberidaceae C1
Erigeron annuus Asteraceae C1
Fallopia × bohemica Polygonaceae B1
Fallopia japonica Polygonaceae A3
Fallopia sachalinensis Polygonaceae B1
Helianthus tuberosus Asteraceae B2
Heracleum mantegazzianum Apiaceae A3
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides Apiaceae A0
Impatiens balfourii Balsaminaceae B1 4
Impatiens glandulifera Balsaminaceae A3
Impatiens parviflora Balsaminaceae C3
Lagarosiphon major Hydrocharitaceae A0
Lemna minuta Lemnaceae B1 5
Lupinus polyphyllus Fabaceae C1
Mahonia aquifolium Berberidaceae B1
Mimulus guttatus Scrophulariaceae C1
Myriophyllum aquaticum Haloragaceae B1
Myriophyllum heterophyllum Haloragaceae B0
Parthenocissus spp. Vitaceae C1
Pinus nigra Pinaceae A1
Populus × canadensis Salicaceae C3
Prunus laurocerasus Rosaceae C1
Prunus serotina Rosaceae B1
Quercus rubra Fagaceae C1
Rhus typhina Anacardiaceae B1
Robinia pseudoacacia Fabaceae A3
Rosa rugosa Rosaceae C1
Rudbeckia laciniata Asteraceae C1
Senecio inaequidens Asteraceae B2
Solidago canadensis Asteraceae A2
Solidago gigantea Asteraceae A2
Spiraea alba Rosaceae C1
Spiraea × billardii Rosaceae B0
Spiraea douglasii Rosaceae B0
Syringa vulgaris Oleaceae C1


  1. Cf.
  2. Cf. Ries, C., Y. Krippel, M. Pfeiffenschneider & S. Schneider, 2013. Environmental impact assessment and black, watch and alert list classification after the ISEIA Protocol of non-native vascular plant species in Luxembourg. Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 114: 15-21. [PDF 652 kB]
  3. Atriplex micrantha has been assessed on 16 February 2017 by Yves Krippel and Christian Ries.
  4. Impatiens balfourii has been assessed on 16 February 2017 by Yves Krippel and Christian Ries.
  5. Lemna minuta has been reassessed on 16 February 2017 by Yves Krippel and Christian Ries.